TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT, 1882
1. Short title
This Act may be called the Transfer of Property Act, 1882.
Commencement: It shall come into force on the first day of July, 1882.
Extent: It extends in the first instance to the whole of India except the territories which, immediately before the 1st November, 1956, were comprised in Part B States or in the States of Bombay, Punjab and Delhi.
But this Act or any part thereof may by notification in the Official Gazette be extended to the whole or any part of the said territories by the State Government concerned.
And any State Government may from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt, either retrospectively or prospectively, any part of the territories administered by such State Government from all or any of the following provisions, namely,
Section 54, paragraph 2 and sections 3, 59, 107 and 123.
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing part of this section, section 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, and sections from the operation of the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (XVI of 1908), under the power conferred by the first section of that Act or otherwise.
59, 107 and 123 shall not extend or be extended to any district or tract of country for the time being excluded 2. Repeal of Acts-Saving of certain enactments, incidents, rights, liabilities, etc.
In the territories to which this Act extends for the time being the enactments specified in the Schedule hereto annexed shall be repealed to the extent therein mentioned. But nothing herein contained shall be deemed to affect(
a) the provisions of any enactment not hereby expressly repealed;
(b) any terms or incidents of any contract or constitution of property which are consistent with the provisions of this Act, and are allowed by the law for the time being in force;
(c) any right or liability arising out of a legal relation constituted before this Act comes into force, or any relief in respect of any such right or liability; or
(d) save as provided by section 57 and Chapter IV of this Act, any transfer by operation of law or by, or in execution of, a decree or order of a court of competent jurisdiction, and nothing in the second Chapter of this Act shall be deemed to affect any rule of Mohammedan law.
3. Interpretation clause
In this Act, unless there is something repugnant in the subject or context,”immovable property” does not include standing timber, growing crops or grass;
“instrument” means a non-testamentary instrument;
“attested”, in relation to an instrument, means and shall be deemed always to have meant attested by two or more witnesses each of whom has seen the executant sign or affix his mark to the instrument, or has seen some other person sign the instrument in the presence and by the direction of the executant, or has received from the executant a personal acknowledgement of his signature or mark, or of the signature of such other person, and each of whom has signed the instrument in the presence of the executant; but it shall not be necessary that more than one of such witnesses shall have been present at the same time, and no particular form of attestation shall be necessary;
“registered” means registered in any part of the territories to which this Act extends under the law for the time acquired, is situated: being in force regulating the registration of documents;
” attached to the earth” means
(a) rooted in the earth, as in the case of trees and shrubs;
(b) imbedded in the earth, as in the case of walls or buildings; or
(c) attached to what is so embedded for the permanent beneficial enjoyment of that to which it is attached;
“actionable claim” means a claim to any debt, other than a debt secured by mortgage of immovable property or by hypothecation or pledge of movable property, or to any beneficial interest in movable property not in the possession, either actual or constructive, of the claimant, which the civil courts recognize as affording grounds for relief, whether such debt or beneficial interest be existent, accruing, conditional or contingent;
“a person is said to have notice” of a fact when he actually knows that fact, or when, but for willful abstention from an enquiry or search which he ought to have made, or gross negligence, he would have known it.
Explanation I: Where any transaction relating to immovable property is required by law to be and has been effected by a registered instrument, any person acquiring such property or any part of, or share or interest in, such property shall be deemed to have notice of such instrument as from the date of registration or, where the property is not all situated in one sub-district, or where the registered instrument has been registered under sub-section (2) of section 30 of the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), from the earliest date on which any memorandum of such registered instrument has been filed by any Sub-Registrar within whose sub-district any part of the property which is being acquired, or of the property wherein a share or interest is being PROVIDED that
(1) the instrument has been registered and its registration completed in the manner prescribed by the Indian Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), and the rules made there under,
(2) the instrument of memorandum has been duly entered or filed, as the case may be, in books kept under section 51 of that Act, and
(3) the particulars regarding the transaction to which the instrument relates have been correctly entered in the indexes kept under section 55 of that Act.
Explanation II : Any person acquiring any immovable property or any share or interest in any such property shall be deemed to have notice of the title, if any, of any person who is for the time being in actual possession thereof.
Explanation III: A person shall be deemed to have had notice of any fact if his agent acquires notice thereof whilst acting on his behalf in the course of business to which that fact is material:
PROVIDED that, if the agent fraudulently conceals the fact, the principal shall not be charged with notice thereof as against any person who was a party to or otherwise cognizant of the fraud.
4. Enactments relating to contracts to be taken as part of Contract Act and supplemental to the Registration Act The Chapters and sections of this Act which relate to contracts shall be taken as part of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872).
1[And section 54, paragraphs 2 and 3, sections 59, 107 and 123 shall be read as supplemental to the Indian Registration Act, 2[1908 (16 of 1908)].]
CHAPTER II OF TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY BY ACT OF PARTIES
(A) Transfer of property, whether movable or immovable
5. Transfer of property defined
In the following sections “transfer of property” means an act by which a living person conveys property, in present or in future, to one or more other living persons, or to himself and one or more other living persons; and “to transfer property” is to perform such act.
In this section “living person includes a company or association or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, but nothing herein contained shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to transfer of property to or by companies, associations or bodies of individuals.
6. What may be transferred Property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force.
(a) The chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, the chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of a kinsman, or any other mere possibility of a like nature, cannot be transferred.
(b) A mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby.
(c) An easement cannot be transferred apart from the dominant heritage.
(d) An interest in property restricted in its enjoyment to the owner personally cannot be transferred by him.
(dd) A right to future maintenance, in whatsoever manner arising, secured or determined, cannot be transferred.
(e) A mere right to sue cannot be transferred.
(f) A public office cannot be transferred, nor can the salary of a public officer, whether before or after it has become payable.
(g) Stipends allowed to military, naval, air-force and civil pensioners of the government and political pensions cannot be transferred.
(h) No transfer can be made (1) insofar as it is opposed to the nature of the interest affected thereby, or (2) for an unlawful object or consideration within the meaning of section 23 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872), or (3) to a person legally disqualified to be transferee.
(i) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise a tenant having an un transferable right of occupancy, the farmer of an estate in respect of which default has been made in paying revenue, or the lessee of an estate, under the management of a Court of Wards, to assign his interest as such tenant, farmer or lessee.
7. Persons competent to transfer
Every person competent to contract and entitled to transferable property, or authorised to dispose of transferable property not his own, is competent to transfer such property either wholly or in part, and either absolutely or conditionally, in the circumstances, to the extent and in the manner, allowed and prescribed by any law for the time being in force.
Unless a different intention is expressed or necessarily implied, a transfer of property passes forthwith to the transferee all the interest which the transferor is then capable of passing in the property and in the legal incidents thereof.
Such incidents include, when the property is land, the easements annexed thereto, the rents and profits thereof accruing after the transfer, and all things attached to the earth;
and, where the property is machinery attached to the earth, the movable parts thereof; and, where the property is a house, the easements annexed thereto, the rent thereof accruing after the transfer, and the
locks, keys, bars, doors, windows, and all other things provided for permanent use therewith; shall be entitled to receive and dispose of such interest as if there were no such direction. because it does not extend to the whole of A’s remaining interest in the property.
and, where the property is a debtor other actionable claim, the securities there for (except where they are also for other debts or claims not transferred to the transferee), but not arrears of interest accrued before the transfer;
and, where the property is money or other property yielding income, the interest or income thereof accruing after the transfer takes effect.
9. Oral transfer
A transfer of property may be made without writing in every case in which a writing is not expressly required by law.
10. Condition restraining alienation
Where property is transferred subject to a condition or limitation absolutely restraining the transferee or any person claiming under him from parting with or disposing of his interest in the property, the condition or limitation is void, except in the case of a lease where the condition is for the benefit of the lessor or those claiming under him:
PROVIDED that property may be transferred to or for the benefit of a women (not being a Hindu, Muhammadan or Buddhist), so that she shall not have power during her marriage to transfer or charge the same or her beneficial interest therein.
11. Restriction repugnant to interest created
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created absolutely in favour of any person, but the terms of the transfer direct that such interest shall be applied or enjoyed by him in a particular manner, he Where any such direction has been made in respect of one piece of immovable property for the purpose of securing the beneficial enjoyment of another piece of such property, nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect any right which the transferor may have to enforce such direction or any remedy which he may have in respect of a breach thereof.
12. Condition making interest determinable on insolvency or attempted alienation
Where property is transferred subject to a condition or limitation making any interest therein, reserved or given to or for the benefit of any person, to cease on his becoming insolvent or end eavouring to transfer or dispose of the same, such condition or limitation is void.
Nothing in this section applies to a condition in a lease for the benefit of the lessor or those claiming under him.
13. Transfer for benefit of unborn person
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not in existence at the date of the transfer, subject to a prior interest created by the same transfer, the interest created for the benefit of such person shall not take effect, unless it extends to the whole of the remaining interest of the transferor in the property.
A transfer property of which he is the owner to B in trust for A and his intended wife successively for their lives, and, after the death of the survivor, for the eldest son of the intended marriage for life, and after his death for A’s second son. The interest so created for the benefit of the eldest son does not take effect,
14. Rule against perpetuity
No transfer of property can operate to create an interest which is to take effect after the life time of one or more persons living at the date of such transfer, and the minority of some person who shall be in existence at the expiration of that period, and to whom, if he attains full age, the interest created is to belong.
15. Transfer to a class, some of whom come under sections 13 and 14
If, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a class of persons with regard to some of whom such interest fails by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 13 and 14, such interest fails in regard to those persons only and not in regard to the whole class.
interest under the transfer; or Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not then living, he
16. Transfer to take effect on failure of prior interest
Where, by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 13 and 14, an interest created for the benefit of a
person or of a class of persons fails in regard to such person or the whole of such class, any interest created
in the same transaction and intended to take effect after or upon failure of such prior interest also fails.
17. Direction for accumulation
(1) Where the terms of a transfer of property direct that the income arising from the property shall be accumulated either wholly or in part during a period longer than(
a) the life of the transferor, or
(b) a period of eighteen years from the date of transfer,
such direction shall, save as hereinafter provided, be void to the extent to which the period during which the accumulation is directed exceeds the longer of the aforesaid periods, and at the end of such last-mentioned period the property and the income thereof shall be disposed of as if the period during which the accumulation has been directed to be made had elapsed.
(2) This section shall not affect any direction for accumulation for the purpose of(
i) the payment of the debts of the transferor or any other person taking any interest under the transferor; or
(ii) the provision of portions for children or remoter issue of the transferor or of any other person taking any
(iii) the preservation or maintenance of the property transferred,
and such direction may be made accordingly.
18. Transfer in perpetuity for benefit of public
The restrictions in sections 14, 16 and 17 shall not apply in the case of a transfer of property for the benefit of
the public in the advancement of religion, knowledge, commerce, health, safety or any other object beneficial to mankind.
19. Vested interest
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of a person without specifying the
time when it is to take effect, or in terms specifying that it is to take effect forthwith or on the happening of an
event which must happen, such interest is vested, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer.
A vested interest is not defeated by the death of the transferee before he obtains possession.
Explanation : An intention that an interest shall not be vested is not to be inferred merely from a provision
whereby the enjoyment thereof is postponed, or whereby a prior interest in the same property is given or
reserved to some other person, or whereby income arising from the property is directed to be accumulated
until the time of enjoyment arrives, or from a provision that if a particular event shall happen the interest shall
pass to another person.
20. When unborn person acquires vested interest on transfer for his benefit
acquires upon his birth, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer, a vested interest,
although he may not be entitled to the enjoyment thereof immediately on his birth.
21. Contingent interest
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of a person to take effect only on the
happening of a specified uncertain event, or if a specified uncertain event shall not happen, such person
thereby acquires a contingent interest in the property. Such interest becomes a vested interest, in the former
case, on the happening of the event, in the latter, when the happening of the event becomes impossible.
Exception: Where, under a transfer of property, a person becomes entitled to an interest therein upon
25. Conditional transfer
with the consent of C and D. B is deemed to have fulfilled the condition.
attaining a particular age, and the transferor also gives to him absolutely the income to arise from such
interest before he reaches that age, or directs the income or so much thereof as may be necessary to be
applied for his benefit, such interest is not contingent.
22. Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of such members only of a class as
shall attain a particular age, such interest does not vest in any member of the class who has not attained that
23. Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is to accrue to a specified person if a specified uncertain
event shall happen, and no time is mentioned for the occurrence of that event, the interest fails unless such
event happens before, or at the same time as, the intermediate or precedent interest ceases to exist.
24. Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period not specified
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is to accrue to such of certain persons as shall be
surviving at some period, but the exact period is not specified, the interest shall go to such of them as shall be
alive when the intermediate or precedent interest ceases to exist, unless a contrary intention appears from the
terms of the transfer.
A transfer property to B for life, and after his death to C and D, equally to be divided between them, or to the
survivor of them. C dies during the lifetime of B. D survives B. At B’s death the property passes to D.
An interest created on a transfer of property and dependent upon a condition fails if the fulfillment of the
condition is impossible, or is forbidden by law, or is of such a nature that, if permitted, it would defeat the
provisions of any law, or is fraudulent, or involves or implies injury to the person or property of another, or the
court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy.
(a) A lets a farm to B on condition that he shall walk a hundred miles in an hour. The lease is void.
(b) A gives Rs.500 to B on condition that he shall marry A’s daughter C. At the date of the transfer C was
dead. The transfer is void.
(c) A transfers Rs.500 to B on condition that she shall murder C. The transfer is void.
(d) A transfers Rs.500 to his niece C, if she will desert her husband. The transfer is void.
26. Fulfillment of condition precedent
Where the terms of a transfer of property impose a condition to be fulfilled before a person can take an
interest in the property, the condition shall be deemed to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially
(a) A transfers Rs.5000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of C, D and E. E dies. B marries
(b) A transfers Rs.5000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of C, D and E. B marries without
the consent of C, D and E, but obtains their consent after the marriage. B has not fulfilled the condition.
27. Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to another on failure of prior disposition
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of one person, and by the same
transaction an ulterior disposition of the same interest is made in favour of another, if the prior disposition
under the transfer shall fail, the ulterior disposition shall take effect upon the failure of the prior disposition,
although the failure may not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the transferor.
But, where the intention of the parties to the transaction is that the ulterior disposition shall take effect only in
the event of the prior disposition failing in a particular manner, the ulterior disposition shall not take effect
unless the prior disposition fails in that manner.
(a) A transfers Rs.500 to B on condition that he shall execute a certain lease within three months after A’s
death, and, if he should neglect to do so, to C. B dies in A’s life-time. The disposition in favour of C takes
(b) A transfers property to his wife; but, in case she should die in his life-time, transfer to B that which he had
transferred to her. A and his wife perish together, under circumstances which make it impossible to prove that
she died before him. The disposition in favour of B does not take effect.
28. Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not happening of specified event
On a transfer of property an interest therein may be created to accrue to any person with the condition
superadded that in case a specified uncertain event shall happen such interest shall pass to another person,
or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen such interest shall pass to another person. In
each case the dispositions are subject to the rules contained in sections 10, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 27.
29. Fulfillment of condition subsequent
An ulterior disposition of the kind contemplated by the last preceding section cannot take effect unless the
condition is strictly fulfilled.
A transfer Rs.500 to B, to be paid to him on his attaining his majority or marrying, with a proviso that, if B dies
in the farm ceases.
as minor or marries without C’s consent, Rs.500 shall go to D. B marries when only 17 years of age, without
C’s consent. The transfer to D takes effect.
30. Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition
If the ulterior disposition is not valid, the prior disposition is not affected by it.
A transfers a farm to B for her life, and, if she does not desert her husband to C. B is entitled to the farm
during her life as if no condition had been inserted.
31. Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case specified uncertain event happens or does not
Subject to the provisions of section 12, on a transfer of property an interest therein may be created with the
condition superadded that it shall cease to exist in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a
specified uncertain event shall not happen.
(a) A transfers a farm to B for his life, with a proviso that, in case B cuts down a certain wood, the transfer
shall cease to have any effect. B cuts down the wood. He loses his life-interest in the farm.
(b) A transfers a farm to B, provided that, if B shall not go to England within three years after the date of the
transfer, his interest in the farm shall cease. B does not go to England within the term prescribed. His interest
32. Such condition must not be invalid
In order that a condition that an interest shall cease to exist may be valid, it is necessary that the event to
which it relates be one which could legally constitute the condition of the creation of an interest.
33. Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for performance
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created subject to a condition that the person taking it
shall perform a certain act, but no time is specified for the performance of the act, the condition is broken
when he renders impossible, permanently or for an indefinite period, the performance of the act.
34. Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified
Where an act is to be performed by a person either as a condition to be fulfilled before an interest created on
a transfer of property is enjoyed by him, or as a condition on the non-fulfillment of which the interest is to pass
from him to another person, and a time is specified for the performance of the act, if such performance within
the specified time is prevented by the fraud of a person who would be directly benefited by non-fulfillment of
the condition, such further time shall as against him be allowed for performing the act as shall be requisite to
make up for the delay caused by such fraud. But if no time is specified for the performance of the act, then, if
its performance is by the fraud of a person interested in the non-fulfillment of the condition rendered
impossible or indefinitely postponed, the condition shall as against him be deemed to have been fulfilled.
35. Election when necessary
Where a person professes to transfer property which he has no right to transfer, and as part of the same transaction confers any benefit on the owner of the property, such owner must elect either to confirm such transfer or to dissent from it; and in the latter case he shall relinquish the benefit so conferred, and the benefit so relinquished shall revert to the transferor or his representative as if it had not been disposed of, subject nevertheless,
where the transfer is gratuitous, and the transferor has, before the election, died or otherwise become incapable of making a fresh transfer, and in all cases where the transfer is for consideration,
to the charge of making good to the disappointed transferee the amount or value of the property attempted to
be transferred to him.
whom the benefit has been conferred has enjoyed it for two years without doing any act to express dissent.
The farm of Sultanpur is the property of C and worth Rs.800. A by an instrument of gift professes to transfer it to B, giving by the same instrument Rs.1,000 to C. C elects to retain the farm. He forfeits the gift of Rs.1,000.
In the same case, A dies before the election. His representative must out of the Rs.1,000 pay Rs.800 to B.
The rule in the first paragraph of this section applies whether the transferor does or does not believe that which he professes to transfer to be his own.
A person taking no benefit directly under a transaction, but deriving a benefit under it indirectly, need not elect.
A person who in his own capacity takes a benefit under the transaction may in another dissent therefrom.
Exception to the last preceding four rules : Where a particular benefit is expressed to be conferred on the owner of the property which the transferor professes to transfer, and such benefit is expressed to be in lieu of that property, if such owner claims the property, he must relinquish the particular benefit, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit conferred upon him by the same transaction.
Acceptance of the benefit by the person on whom it is conferred constitutes an election by him to confirm the transfer, if he is aware of his duty to elect and of those circumstances which would influence the judgement of a reasonable man in making an election, or if he waives enquiry into the circumstances.
Such knowledge or waiver shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed, if the person on Such knowledge or waiver may be inferred from any act of his which renders it impossible to place the persons interested in the property professed to be transferred in the same condition as if such act had not been done.
A transfers to B an estate to which C is entitled, and as part of the same transaction gives C a coal-mine. C takes possession of the mine and exhausts it. He has thereby confirmed the transfer of the estate to B.
If he does not within one year after the date of the transfer signify to the transferor or his representatives his PROVIDED that no person on whom the burden of the obligation lies shall be answerable for failure to ascertain the existence of such circumstances, has acted in good faith.
intention to confirm or to dissent from the transfer, the transferor or his representative may, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make his election; and, if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm the transfer.
In case of disability, the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases, or until the election is made by some competent authority.
36. Apportionment of periodical payments on determination of interest of person entitled
In the absence of a contract or local usage to the contrary, all rents, annuities, pensions, dividends and other
periodical payments in the nature of income shall, upon the transfer of the interest of the person entitled to
receive such payments, be deemed, as between the transferor and the transferee, to accrue due from day to
day, and to be apportionable accordingly, but to be payable on the days appointed for the payment thereof.
37. Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance
When, in consequence of a transfer, property is divided and held in several shares, and thereupon the benefit
of any obligation relating to the property as a whole passes from one to several owners of the property, the
corresponding duty shall, in the absence of a contract, to the contrary amongst the owners, be performed in
favour of each of such owners in proportion to the value of his share in the property, provided that the duty
can be severed and that the severance does not substantially increase the burden of the obligation; but if the
duty cannot be severed, or if the severance would substantially increase the burden of the obligation the duty
shall be performed for the benefit of such one of the several owners as they shall jointly designate for that
discharge it in the manner provided by this section, unless and until he has had reasonable notice of the
Nothing in this section applies to leases for agricultural purposes unless and until the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette so directs.
(a) A sells to B, C and D a house situated in a village and leased to E at an annual rent of Rs.30 and delivery
of one fat sheep, B having provided half the purchase-money and C and D one quarter each. E, having notice
of this, must pay Rs.15 to B, Rs.7.50 to C, and Rs.7.50 to D and must deliver the sheep according to the joint
direction of B, C and D.
(b) In the same case, each house in the village being bound to provide ten days’ labour each year on a dyke
to prevent inundation. E had agreed as a term of his lease to perform this work for A, B, C and D severally
require E to perform the ten days’ work due on account of the house of each. E is not bound to do more than
ten days’ work in all, according to such directions as B, C and D may join in giving.
(B) Transfer of immovable property
38. Transfer by person authorised only under certain circumstances to transfer
Where any person, authorised only under circumstances in their nature variable to dispose of immovable
property, transfers such property for consideration, alleging the existence of such circumstances, they shall,
as between the transferee on the one part and the transferor and other persons (if any) affected by the
transfer on the other part, be deemed to have existed, if the transferee, after using reasonable care to
A, a Hindu widow, whose husband has left collateral heirs, alleging that the property held by her as such is
insufficient for her maintenance, agrees, for purposes neither religious nor charitable to sell a field, part of
such property, to B. B satisfies himself by reasonable enquiry that the income of the property is insufficient for
A’s maintenance, and that the sale of the field is necessary, and acting in good faith, buys the field from A. As
between B on the one part and A and the collateral heirs on the other part, a necessity for the sale shall be
deemed to have existed.
39. Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance
Where a third person has a right to receive maintenance, or a provision for advancement or marriage, from
the profits of immovable property, and such property is transferred, the right may be enforced against the
transferee, if he has notice thereof or if the transfer is gratuitous; but not against a transferee for consideration
and without notice of the right, nor against such property in his hands.
40. Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land
Where, for the more beneficial enjoyment of his own immovable property, a third person has, independently of
any interest in the immovable property of another or of any easement thereon, a right to restrain the
enjoyment in a particular manner of the latter property, or
Or of obligation annexed to ownership but not amounting to interest or easement : Where a third person is
entitled to the benefit of an obligation arising out of contract and annexed to the ownership of immovable
property, but not amounting to an interest therein or easement thereon,
such right or obligation may be enforced against a transferee with notice thereof or a gratuitous transferee of
the property affected thereby, but not against a transferee for consideration and without notice of the right or
obligation, nor against such property in his hands.
A contracts to sell Sultanpur to B. While the contract is still in force he sells Sultanpur to C, who has notice of
the contract. B may enforce the contract against C to the same extent as against A.
41. Transfer by ostensible owner
Where, with the consent, express or implied, of the persons interested in immovable property, a person is the
existence of the said option.
ostensible owner of such property and transfers the same for consideration, the transfer shall not be voidable
on the ground that the transferor was not authorised to make it:
PROVIDED that the transferee, after taking reasonable care to ascertain that the transferor had power to
make the transfer, has acted in good faith.
42. Transfer by person having authority to revoke former transfer
Where a person transfers any immovable property, reserving power to revoke the transfer, and subsequently
transfers the property for consideration to another transferee, such transfer operates in favour of such
transferee (subject to any condition attached to the exercise of the power) as a revocation of the former
transfer to the extent of the power.
A lets a house to B, and reserves power to revoke the lease if, in the opinion of a specified surveyor, B should
make a use of it detrimental to its value. Afterwards A, thinking that such a use has been made, lets the house
to C. This operates as a revocation of B’s lease subject to the opinion of the surveyor as to B’s use of the
house having been detrimental to its value.
43. Transfer by unauthorised person who subsequently acquires interest in property transferred
Where a person fraudulently or erroneously represents that he is authorised to transfer certain immovable
property and professes to transfer such property for consideration, such transfer shall, at the option of the
transferee, operate on any interest which the transferor may acquire in such property at any time during which
the contract of transfer subsists.
Nothing in this section shall impair the right of transferees in good faith for consideration without notice of the
A, a Hindu who has separated from his father B, sells to C three fields, X, Y and Z, representing that A is
authorised to transfer the same. Of these fields Z does not belong to A, it having been retained by B on the
partition; but on B’s dying A as heir obtains Z. C, not having rescinded the contract of sale, may require A to
deliver Z to him.
44. Transfer by one co-owner
Where one of two or more co-owners of immovable property legally competent in that behalf transfers his
share of such property or any interest therein, the transferee acquires, as to such share or interest, and so far
as is necessary to give, effect to the transfer, the transferor’s right to joint possession or other common or part
enjoyment of the property, and to enforce a partition of the same’ but subject to the conditions and liabilities
affecting at the date of the transfer, the share or interest so transferred.
Where the transferee of a share of a dwelling-house belonging to an undivided family is not a member of the
family, nothing in this section shall be deemed to entitle him to joint possession or other common or part
enjoyment of the house.
45. Joint transfer for consideration
Where immovable property is transferred for consideration to two or more persons and such consideration is
paid out of a fund belonging to them in common, they are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary,
respectively entitled to interests in such property identical, as nearly as may be, with the interests to which
they were respectively entitled in the fund; and, where such consideration is paid out of separate funds
belonging to them respectively, they are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, respectively entitled to
interests in such property in proportion to the shares of the consideration which they respectively advanced.
In the absence of evidence as to the interests in the fund to which they were respectively entitled, or as to the
shares which they respectively advanced, such persons shall be presumed to be equally interested in the
46. Transfer for consideration by persons having distinct interests
Where immovable property is transferred for consideration by persons having distinct interests therein, the
transferors are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to share in the consideration equally,
where their interests in the property were of equal value, and, where such interests were of unequal value,
48. Priority of rights created by transfer
proportionately to the value of their respective interests.
(a) A, owning a moiety, and B and C, each a quarter share, of mauza Sultanpur, exchange an eighth share of
that mauza for a quarter share of mauza Lalpura. There being no agreement to the contrary, A is entitled to
an eighth share in Lalpura, and B and C each to a sixteenth share in the mauza.
(b) A, being entitled to a life-interest in mauza Atrali and B and C to the reversion, sell the mauza for Rs.1,000.
A’s life-interest is ascertained to be worth Rs.600, the reversion Rs.400. A is entitled to receive Rs.600 out of
the purchase-money, B and C to receive Rs.400.
47. Transfer by co-owners of share in common property
Where several co-owners of immovable property transfer a share therein without specifying that the transfer is to take effect on any particular share or shares of the transferors, the transfer, as among such transferors,takes effect on such shares equally where the shares were equal, and, where they were unequal,proportionately to the extent of such shares.
A, the owner of an eight-anna share, and B and C, each the owner of a four-anna share, in mauza Sultanpur, transfer a two-anna share in the mauza to D, without specifying from which of their several shares the transfer is made. To give effect to the transfer one-anna share is taken from the share of A, and half-an-anna share from each of the shares of B and C.
Where a person purports to create by transfer at different times rights in or over the same immovable property, and such rights cannot all exist or be exercised to their full extent together, each later created right shall, in the absence of a special contract or reservation binding the earlier transferees, be subject to the rights previously created.
49. Transferee’s right under policy
Where immovable property is transferred for consideration, and such property or any part thereof is at the date of the transfer insured against loss or damage by fire, the transferee, in case of such loss or damage, may, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, require any money which the transferor actually receives under the policy, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to be applied in reinstating the property.
50. Rent bona fide paid to holder under defective title
No person shall be chargeable with any rents or profits of any immovable property, which he has in good faith paid or delivered to any person of whom he in good faith held such property, notwithstanding it may afterwards appear that the person to whom such payment or delivery was made had no right to receive such rents or profits.
A lets a field to B at a rent of Rs.50, and then transfers the field to C. B, having no notice of the transfer, in good faith pays the rent to A. B is not chargeable with the rent so paid.
51. Improvements made by bona fide holders under defective titles
When the transferee of immovable property makes any improvement on the property, believing in good faith
that he is absolutely entitled thereto, and he is subsequently evicted therefrom by any person having a better
title, the transferee has a right to require the person causing the eviction either to have the value of the
improvement estimated and paid or secured to the transferee, or to sell interest in the property to the
transferee at the then market value thereof, irrespective of the value of such improvement.
The amount to be paid or secured in respect of such improvement shall be the estimated value thereof at the
time of the eviction.
When, under the circumstances aforesaid, the transferee has planted or sown on the property crops which
are growing when he is evicted therefrom, he is entitled to such crops and to free ingress and egress to gather and carry them.
the creditors of the transferor shall be instituted on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all the creditors.
52. Transfer of property pending suit relating thereto
During the pendency in any court having authority 3[4[within the limits of India excluding the State of Jammu
and Kashmir] Government or established beyond such limits] by the Central Government of any suit or
proceedings which is not collusive and in which any right to immovable property is directly and specifically in
question, the property cannot be transferred or otherwise dealt with by any party to the suit or proceeding so
as to affect the rights of any other party thereto under any decree or order which may be made therein, except
under the authority of the court and on such terms as it may impose.
Explanation : For the purposes of this section, the pendency of a suit or proceeding shall be deemed to
commence from the date of the presentation of the plaint or the institution of the proceeding in a court of
competent jurisdiction, and to continue until the suit or proceeding has been disposed of by a final decree or
order and complete satisfaction or discharge of such decree or order has been obtained, or has become
unobtainable by reason of the expiration of any period of limitation prescribed for the execution thereof by any
law for the time being in force.
53. Fraudulent transfer
(1) Every transfer of immovable property made with intent to defeat or delay the creditors of the transferor
shall be voidable at the option of any creditor so defeated or delayed.
Nothing in this sub-section shall impair the rights of a transferee in good faith and for consideration.
Nothing in this sub-section shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to insolvency.
A suit instituted by a creditor (which term includes a decree-holder whether he has or has not applied for
execution of his decree) to avoid a transfer on the ground that it has been made with intent to defeat or delay
(2) Every transfer of immovable property made without consideration with intent to defraud a subsequent
transferee shall be voidable at the option of such transferee.
For the purposes of this sub-section, no transfer made without consideration shall be deemed to have been
made with intent to defraud by reason only that a subsequent transfer for consideration was made.
53A. Part performance
Where any person contracts to transfer for consideration any immovable property by writing signed by him or
on his behalf from which the terms necessary to constitute the transfer can be ascertained with reasonable
and the transferee has, in part performance of the contract, taken possession of the property or any part
thereof, or the transferee, being already in possession, continues in possession in part performance of the
contract and has done some act in furtherance of the contract,
and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract,
then, notwithstanding that the contract, though required to be registered, has not been registered, or, where
there is an instrument of transfer, that the transfer has not been completed in the manner prescribed therefor
by the law for the time being in force, the transferor or any person claiming under him shall be debarred from
enforcing against the transferee and persons claiming under him any right in respect of the property of which
the transferee has taken or continued in possession, other than a right expressly provided by the terms of the
PROVIDED that nothing in this section shall affect the rights of a transferee for consideration who has no
notice of the contract or of the part performance thereof.
CHAPTER III OF SALES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
54. “Sale” defined
is, and the buyer is not, aware, and which the buyer could not with ordinary care discover;
“Sale” is a transfer of ownership in exchange for a price paid or promised or part-paid and part-promised.
Sale how made: Such transfer, in the case of tangible immovable property of the value of one hundred rupees
and upwards, or in the case of a reversion or other intangible thing, can be made only by a registered
In the case of tangible immovable property of a value less than one hundred rupees, such transfer may be
made either by a registered instrument or by delivery of the property.
Delivery of tangible immovable property takes place when the seller places the buyer, or such person as he
directs, in possession of the property.
Contract for sale: A contract for the sale of immovable property is a contract that a sale of such property shall
take place on terms settled between the parties.
It does not, of itself, create any interest in or charge on such property.
55. Rights and liabilities of buyer and seller
In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the buyer and the seller of immovable property respectively are
subject to the liabilities, and have the rights, mentioned in the rules next following or such of them as are
applicable to the property sold:
(1) The seller is bound(
a) to disclose to the buyer any material defect in the property or in the seller’s title thereto of which the seller
(b) to produce to the buyer on his request for examination all documents of title relating to the property which
are in the seller’s possession or power;
(c) to answer to the best of his information all relevant questions put to him by the buyer in respect to the
property or the title thereto;
(d) on payment or tender of the amount due in respect of the price, to execute a proper conveyance of the
property when the buyer tenders it to him for execution at a proper time and place;
(e) between the date of the contract of sale and the delivery of the property, to take as much care of the
property and all documents of title relating thereto which are in his possession as an owner of ordinary
prudence would take of such property and documents;
(f) to give, on being so required, the buyer, or such person as he directs, such possession of the property as
its nature admits;
(g) to pay all public charges and rent accrued due in respect of the property up to the date of the sale, the
interest on all encumbrances on such property due on such date, and, except where the property is sold
subject to encumbrances, to discharge all encumbrances on the property then existing.
(2) The seller shall be deemed to contract with the buyer that the interest which the seller professes to
transfer to the buyer subsists and that he has power to transfer the same:
PROVIDED that, where the sale is made by a person in a fiduciary character, he shall be deemed to contract
with the buyer that the seller has done no act whereby the property is encumbered or whereby he is hindered
from transferring it.
The benefit of the contract mentioned in this rule shall be annexed to, and shall go with, the interest of the
transferee as such, and may be enforced by every person in whom that interest is for the whole or any part
thereof from time to time vested.
(3) Where the whole of the purchase-money has been paid to the seller, he is also bound to deliver to the
buyer all documents of title relating to the property which are in the seller’s possession or power:
(a) where the seller retains any part of the property comprised in such documents, he is entitled to retain them
(b) where the whole of such property is sold to different buyers, the buyers of the lot of greatest value is
entitled to such documents.
But in case (a) the seller, and in case (b) the buyer, of the lot of greatest value, is bound, upon every
reasonable request by the buyer, or by any of the other buyers, as the case may be, and at the cost of the
person making the request, to produce the said documents and furnish such true copies thereof or extracts
therefrom as he may require; and in the meantime, the seller, or the buyer of the lot of greatest value, as the
case may be, shall keep the said documents safe, uncancelled and undefaced, unless prevented from so
doing by fire or other inevitable accident.
(4) The seller is entitled(
a) to the rents and profits of the property till the ownership thereof passes to the buyer;
(b) where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer before payment of the whole of the
purchase-money, to a charge upon the property in the hands of the buyer, any transferee without
consideration or any transferee with notice of the non-payment, for the amount of the purchase-money, or any
part thereof remaining unpaid, and for interest on such amount or part from the date on which possession has
(5) The buyer is bound(
a) to disclose to the seller any fact as to the nature or extent of the seller’s interest in the property of which
the buyer is aware, but of which he has reason to believe that the seller is not aware, and which materially
increases the value of such interest;
(b) to pay or tender, at the time and place of completing the sale, the purchase-money to the seller or such
person as he directs:
PROVIDED that, where the property is sold free from encumbrances, the buyer may retain out of the
purchase-money the amount of any encumbrances on the property existing at the date of the sale, and shall
pay the amount so retained to the persons entitled thereto;
properties to another person, the buyer is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to have the
(c) where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer, to bear any loss arising from the destruction,
injury or decrease in value of the property not caused by the seller;
(d) where the ownership of the property has passed to the buyer, as between himself and the seller, to pay all
public charges and rent which may become payable in respect of the property, the principal moneys due on
any encumbrances subject to which the property is sold, and the interest thereon afterwards accruing due.
(6) The buyer is entitled(
a) where the ownership of the property has passed to him, to the benefit of any improvement in, or increase
in value of, the property, and to the rents and profits thereof;
(b) unless he has improperly declined to accept delivery of the property, to a charge on the property, as
against the seller and all persons claiming under him, to the extent of the seller’s interest in the property, for
the amount of any purchase-money properly paid by the buyer in anticipation of the delivery and for interest
on such amount; and, when he properly declines to accept the delivery, also for the earnest (if any) and for
the costs (if any) awarded to him of a suit to compel specific performance of the contract or to obtain a decree
for its rescission.
An omission to make such disclosures as are mentioned in this section, paragraph (1), clause (a) and
paragraph (5), clause (a), is fraudulent.
56. Marshalling by subsequent purchaser
If the owner of two or more properties mortgages them to one person and then sells one or more of the
mortgage-debt satisfied out of the property or properties not sold to him, so far as the same will extend, but
not so as to prejudice the rights of the mortgagee or persons claiming under him or of any other person who
has for consideration acquired an interest in any of the properties.
DISCHARGE OF ENCUMBRANCES ON SALE
57. Provision by court for encumbrances and sale freed therefrom
(a) Where immovable property subject to any encumbrances, whether immediately payable or not, is sold by
the court or in execution of a decree, or out of court, the court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of any
party to the sale, direct or allow payment into court,(
1) in case of an annual or monthly sum charged on the property, or of a capital sum charged on a
determinable interest in the property-of such amount as, when invested in securities of the Central
Government, the court considers will be sufficient, by means of the interest thereof, to keep down or otherwise
provide for that charge, and
(2) in any other case of a capital sum charged on the property-of the amount sufficient to meet the
encumbrance and any interest due thereon.
But in either case there shall also be paid into court such additional amount as the court considers will be
sufficient to meet the contingency of further costs, expenses and interest, and any other contingency, except
depreciation of investment not exceeding one-tenth part of the original amount to be paid in, unless the court
for special reasons (which it shall record) thinks fit to require a large additional amount.
(b) Thereupon the court may, if it thinks fit, and after notice to the encumbrances, unless the court, for
reasons to be recorded in writing thinks fit to dispense with such notice, declare the property to be freed from
the encumbrance, and make any order for conveyance, or vesting order, proper for giving effect to the sale,
and give directions for the retention and investment of the money in court.
(c) After notice served on the persons interested in or entitled to the money or fund in court, the court may
direct payment or transfer thereof to the persons entitled to receive or give a discharge for the same, and
generally may give directions respecting the application or distribution of the capital or income thereof.
(d) An appeal shall lie from any declaration, order or direction under this section as if the same were a decree.
(e) In this section “court” means (1) a High Court in the exercise of its ordinary or extraordinary original civil
on condition that on default of payment of the mortgage-money on a certain date the sale shall become
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, and in any other town which the State Government concerned may, by
jurisdiction, (2) the court of a District Judge within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property or any part
thereof is situate, (3) any other court which the State Government may, from time to time, by notification in the
Official Gazette, declare to be competent to exercise the jurisdiction conferred by this section.
CHAPTER IV [ up ]
OF MORTGAGES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY AND CHARGES
58. “Mortgage”, “mortgagor”, “mortgagee”, “mortgage-money” and “mortgaged” defined.
(a) A mortgage is the transfer of an interest in specific immoveable property for the purpose of securing the
payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of loan, an existing or future debt, or the performance
of an engagement which may give rise to a pecuniary liability.
The transferor is called a mortgagor, the transferee a mortgagee; the principal money and interest of which
payment is secured for the time being are called the mortgage-money, and the instrument (if any) by which
the transfer is effected is called a mortgage-deed.
(b) Simple mortgage-Where, without delivering possession of the mortgaged property, the mortgagor binds
himself personally to pay the mortgage-money, and agrees, expressly or impliedly, that, in the event of his
failing to pay according to his contract, the mortgagee shall have a right to cause the mortgaged property to
be sold and the proceeds of sale to be applied, so far as may be necessary, in payment of the mortgage-
money, the transaction is called a simple mortgage and the mortgagee a simple mortgagee.
(c) Mortgage by conditional sale-Where, the mortgagor ostensibly sells the mortgaged property-
on condition that on such payment being made the sale shall become void, or
on condition that on such payment being made the buyer shall transfer the property to the seller,
the transaction is called a mortgage by conditional sale and the mortgagee a mortgagee by conditional sale:
PROVIDED that no such transaction shall be deemed to be a mortgage, unless the condition is embodied in
the document which effects or purports to effect the sale.
(d) Usufructuary mortgage-Where the mortgagor delivers possession or expressly or by implication binds
himself to deliver possession of the mortgaged property to the mortgagee, and authorises him to retain such
possession until payment of the mortgage-money, and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the
property or any part of such rents and profits and to appropriate the same in lieu of interest or in payment of
the mortgage-money, or partly in lieu of interest or partly in payment of the mortgage-money, the transaction
is called a usufructuary mortgage and the mortgagee a usufructuary mortgagee.
(e) English mortgage-Where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the mortgage-money on a certain date, and
transfers the mortgaged property absolutely to the mortgagee, but subject to a proviso that he will re-transfer
it to the mortgagor upon payment of the mortgage-money as agreed, the transaction is called an English
(f) Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds-Where a person in any of the following towns, namely, the towns of
notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, delivers to a creditor or his agent documents of title to
immovable property, with intent to create a security thereon, the transaction is called a mortgage by deposit of
(g) Anomalous mortgage-A mortgage which is not a simple mortgage, a mortgage by conditional sale, a
usufructuary mortgage, an English mortgage or a mortgage by deposit of title-deeds within the meaning of this
section is called an anomalous mortgage.
59. Mortgage when to be by assurance
Where the principal money secured is one hundred rupees or upwards, a mortgage other than a mortgage by
deposit of title deeds can be effected only by a registered instrument signed by the mortgagor and attested by
at least two witnesses.
Where the principal money secured is less than one hundred rupees, a mortgage may be effected either by a
registered instrument signed and attested as aforesaid or (except in the case of a simple mortgage) by
delivery of the property.
59A. References to mortgagors and mortgagees to include persons deriving title from them
Unless otherwise expressly provided, references in this Chapter to mortgagors and mortgagees shall be
deemed to include references to persons deriving title from them respectively.
RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF MORTGAGOR
60. Right of mortgagor to redeem
At any time after the principal money has become due, the mortgagor has a right, on payment or tender, at a
proper time and place, of the mortgage-money, to require the mortgagee (a) to deliver to the mortgagor the
mortgage-deed and all documents relating to the mortgaged property which are in the possession or power of
the mortgagee, (b) where the mortgagee is in possession of the mortgaged property, to deliver possession
thereof to the mortgagor, and (c) at the cost of the mortgagor either to re-transfer the mortgaged property to
him or to such third person as he may direct, or to execute and (where the mortgage has been effected by a
registered instrument) to have registered an acknowledgement in writing that any right in derogation of his
interest transferred to the mortgagee has been extinguished:
PROVIDED that the right conferred by this section has not been extinguished by the act of the parties or by
decree of a court.
The right conferred by this section is called a right to redeem and a suit to enforce it is called a suit for
60B. Right to inspection and production of documentsredemption.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to render invalid any provision to the effect that, if the time fixed for
payment of the principal money has been allowed to pass or no such time has been fixed, the mortgagee
shall be entitled to reasonable notice before payment or tender of such money.
Redemption of portion of mortgaged property-Nothing in this section shall entitle a person interested in a
share only of the mortgaged property to redeem his own share only, on payment of a proportionate part of the
amount remaining due on the mortgage, except only where a mortgagee, or, if there are more mortgagees
than one, all such mortgagees, has or have acquired, in whole or in part, the share of a mortgagor.
60A. Obligation to transfer to third party instead of re-transference to mortgagor
(1) Where a mortgagor is entitled to redemption, then, on the fulfilment of any conditions of the fulfilment of
which he would be entitled to require a retransfer, he may require the mortgagee, instead of re-transferring
the property, to assign the mortgage debt and transfer the mortgaged property to such third person as the
mortgagor may direct; and the mortgagee shall be bound to assign and transfer accordingly.
(2) The rights conferred by this section belong to and may be enforced by the mortgagor or by any
encumbrancer notwithstanding an intermediate encumbrance; but the requisition of any encumbrance shall
prevail over a requisition of the mortgagor and, as between encumbrancers, the requisition of a prior
encumbrancer shall prevail over that of a subsequent encumbrancer.
(3) The provisions of this section do not apply in the case of a mortgagee who is or has been in possession.
A mortgagor, as long as his right of redemption subsists, shall be entitled at all reasonable times, at his
request and at his own cost, and on payment of the mortgagee’s cost and expenses in this behalf, to inspect
and make copies or abstracts of, or extracts from, documents of title relating to the mortgaged property which
are in the custody or power of the mortgagee.
61. Right to redeem separately or simultaneously
A mortgagor who has executed two or more mortgages in favour of the same mortgagee shall, in the absence
of a contract to the contrary, when the principal money of any two or more of the mortgages has become due,
be entitled to redeem any one such mortgage separately, or any two or more of such mortgages together.
62. Right of usufructuary mortgagor to recover possession
In the case last mentioned the profits, if any, arising from the accession shall be credited to the mortgagor.
In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the mortgagor shall be deemed to contract with the mortgagee,-
In the case of a usufructuary mortgage, the mortgagor has a right to recover possession of the property
together with the mortgage-deed and all documents relating to the mortgaged property which are in the
possession or power of the mortgagee,(
a) where the mortgagee is authorised to pay himself the mortgage-money from the rents and profits of the
property,-when such money is paid;
(b) where the mortgagee is authorised to pay himself from such rents and profits or any part thereof a part
only of the mortgage-money,-when the term (if any) prescribed for the payment of the mortgage-money has
expired and the mortgagor pays or tenders to the mortgagee the mortgage-money or the balance thereof or
deposits it in court hereinafter provided.
63. Accession to mortgaged property
Where mortgaged property in possession of the mortgagee has, during the continuance of the mortgage,
received any accession, the mortgagor, upon redemption shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary,
be entitled as against the mortgagee to such accession.
Accession acquired in virtue of transferred ownership-Where such accession has been acquired at the
expense of the mortgagee, and is capable of separate possession or enjoyment without detriment to the
principal property, the mortgagor desiring to take the accession must pay to the mortgagee the expense of
acquiring it. If such separate possession or enjoyment is not possible, the accession must be delivered with
the property; the mortgagor being liable, in the case of an acquisition necessary to preserve the property from
destruction, forfeiture or sale, or made with his assent, to pay the proper cost thereof, as an addition to the
principal money, with interest at the same rate as is payable on the principal, or, where no such rate is fixed,
at the rate of nine per cent per annum.
Where the mortgage is usufructuary and the accession has been acquired at the expense of the mortgagee,
the profits, if any, arising from the accession shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be set off
against interest, if any, payable on the money so expended.
63A. Improvements to mortgaged property
(1) Where mortgaged property in possession of the mortgagee has, during the continuance of the mortgage,
been improved, the mortgagor, upon redemption, shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be
entitled to the improvement; and the mortgagor shall not, save only in cases provided for in sub-section (2),
be liable to pay the cost thereof.
(2) Where any such improvement was effected at the cost of the mortgagee and was necessary to preserve
the property from destruction or deterioration or was necessary to prevent the security from becoming
insufficient, or was made in compliance with the lawful order of any public servant or public authority, the
mortgagor shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be liable to pay the proper cost thereof as an
addition to the principal money with interest at the same rate as is payable on the principal, or, where no such
rate is fixed, at the rate of nine per cent per annum, and the profits, if any, accruing by reason of the
improvement shall be credited to the mortgagor.
64. Renewal of mortgaged lease
Where mortgaged property is a lease, and the mortgagee obtains a renewal of the lease, the mortgagor, upon
redemption, shall, in the absence of a contract by him to the contrary, have the benefit of the new lease.
65. Implied contracts by mortgagor
(a) that the interest which the mortgagor professes to transfer to the mortgagee subsists, and that the
mortgagor has power to transfer the same;
(b) that the mortgagor will defend, or, if the mortgagee be in possession of the mortgaged property, enable
him to defend, the mortgagor’s title. thereto;
(c) that the mortgagor will, so long as the mortgagee is not in possession of the mortgaged property, pay all
public charges accruing due in respect of the property;
(d) and, where the mortgaged property is a lease, that the rent payable under the lease, the conditions
(c) No such lease shall contain a covenant for renewal.
contained therein, and the contracts binding on the lessee have been paid, performed and observed down to
the commencement of the mortgage; and that the mortgagor will, so long as the security exists and the
mortgagee is not in possession of the mortgaged property, pay the rent reserved by the lease, or, if the lease
be renewed, the renewed lease, perform the conditions contained therein and observe the contracts binding
on the lessee, and indemnify the mortgagee against all the claims sustained by reason of the non-payment of
the said rent or the non-performance or non-observance of the said conditions and contracts;
(e) and, where the mortgage is a second or subsequent encumbrance on the property, that the mortgagor will
pay the interest from time to time accruing due on such prior encumbrance as and when it becomes due, and
will at the proper time discharge the principal money due on such prior encumbrance.
The benefit of the contracts mentioned in this section shall be annexed to and shall go with the interest of the
mortgagee as such, and may be enforced by every person in whom that interest is for the whole or any part
thereof from time to time vested.
65A. Mortgagor’s power to lease
(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), a mortgagor, while lawfully in possession of the mortgaged
property, shall have power to make leases thereof which shall be binding on the mortgagee.
(2) (a) Every such lease shall be such as would be made in the ordinary course of management of the
property concerned, and in accordance with any local law, custom or usage.
(b) Every such lease shall reserve the best rent that can reasonably be obtained, and no premium shall be
paid or promised and no rent shall be payable in advance.
(d) Every such lease shall take effect from a date not later than six months from the date on which it is made.
(e) In the case of a lease of buildings, whether leased with or without the land on which they stand, the
duration of the lease shall in no case exceed three years, and the lease shall contain a covenant for payment
of the rent and a condition of re-entry on the rent not being paid with a time therein specified.
(3) The provisions of sub-section (1) apply only if and as far as a contrary intention is not expressed in the
mortgage-deed; and the provisions of sub-section (2) may be varied or extended by the mortgage-deed and,
as so varied and extended, shall, as far as may be, operate in like manner and with all like incidents, effects
and consequences, as if such variations or extensions were contained in that sub-section.
66. Waste by mortgagor in possession
A mortgagor in possession of the mortgaged property is not liable to the mortgagee for allowing the property
to deteriorate; but he must not commit any act which is destructive or permanently injurious thereto, if the
security is insufficient or will be rendered insufficient by such act.
Explanation: A security is insufficient within the meaning of this section unless the value of the mortgaged
property exceeds by one-third, or, if consisting of buildings, exceeds by one-half, the amount for the time
being due on the mortgage.
RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF MORTGAGEE
67. Right to foreclosure or sale
In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the mortgagee has, at any time after the mortgage-money has
become due to him, and before a decree has been made for the redemption of the mortgaged property, or the
mortgage-money has been paid or deposited as hereinafter provided, a right to obtain from the court a decree
that the mortgagor shall be absolutely debarred of his right to redeem the property, or a decree that the
property be sold.
A suit to obtain a decree that a mortgagor shall be absolutely debarred of his right to redeem the mortgaged
property is called a suit for foreclosure.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed
(a) to authorise any mortgagee other than a mortgagee by conditional sale or a mortgagee under an
property is wholly or partially destroyed or the security is rendered insufficient within the meaning of section
anomalous mortgage by the terms of which he is entitled to foreclose, to institute a suit for foreclosure, or a
usufructuary mortgagee as such or a mortgagee by conditional sale as such to institute a suit for sale; or
(b) to authorise a mortgagor who holds the mortgagee’s rights as his trustee or legal representative, and who
may sue for a sale of the property, to institute a suit for foreclosure; or
(c) to authorise the mortgagee of a railway, canal, or other work in the maintenance of which the public are
interested, to institute a suit for foreclosure or sale; or
(d) to authorise a person interested in part only of the mortgage-money to institute a suit relating only to a
corresponding part of the mortgaged property, unless the mortgagees have, with the consent of the
mortgagor, severed their interests under the mortgage.
67A. Mortgagee when bound to bring one suit on several mortgages
A mortgagee who holds two or more mortgages executed by the same mortgagor in respect of each of which
he has a right to obtain the same kind of decree under section 67, and who sues to obtain such decree on any
one of the mortgages, shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be bound to sue on all the mortgages
in respect of which the mortgage-money has become due.
68. Right to sue for mortgage-money
(1) The mortgagee has a right to sue for the mortgage-money in the following cases and no others, namely,(
a) where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the same;
(b) where, by any cause other than the wrongful act or default of the mortgagor or mortgagee, the mortgaged
66, and the mortgagee has given the mortgagor a reasonable opportunity of providing further security enough
to render the whole security sufficient, and the mortgagor has failed to do so;
(c) where the mortgagee is deprived of the whole or part of his security by or in consequence of the wrongful
act or default of the mortgagor;
(d) where, the mortgagee being entitled to possession of the mortgaged property, the mortgagor fails to
deliver the same to him, or to secure the possession thereof to him without disturbance by the mortgagor or
any person claiming under a title superior to that of the mortgagor:
PROVIDED that, in the case referred to in clause (a), a transferee from the mortgagor or from his legal
representative shall not be liable to be sued for the mortgage-money.
(2) Where a suit is brought under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1), the court may, at its discretion,
stay the suit and all proceedings therein, notwithstanding any contract to the contrary, until the mortgagee has
exhausted all his available remedies against the mortgaged property or what remains of it, unless the
mortgagee abandons his security and, if necessary, re-transfers the mortgaged property.
69. Power of sale when valid
(1) 5[***] A mortgagee, or any person acting on his behalf, shall, subject to the provisions of this section have
power to sell or concur in selling the mortgaged property or any part thereof, in default of payment of the
mortgage-money, without the intervention of the court, in the following cases and in no others, namely,(
a) where the mortgage is an English mortgage, and neither the mortgagor nor the mortgagee is a Hindu,
Mohammedan or Buddhist or a member of any other race, sect, tribe or class from time to time specified in
this behalf by the State Government, in the Official Gazette;
(b) where a power of sale without the intervention of the court is expressly conferred on the mortgagee by the
mortgage-deed and the mortgagee is the government;
(c) where a power of sale without the intervention of the court is expressly conferred on the mortgagee by the
mortgage-deed and the mortgaged property or any part thereof was, on the date of the execution of the
mortgage-deed, situate within the towns of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, or in any other town or area which the
State Government may, be notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.
(2) No such power shall be exercised unless and until-
(1) A mortgagee having the right to exercise a power of sale under section 69 shall, subject to the provisions
provisions of this section.
(a) notice in writing requiring payment of the principal money has been served on the mortgagor, or on one of
several mortgagors, and default has been made in payment of the principal money, or of part thereof, for
three months after such service; or
(b) some interest under the mortgage amounting at least to five hundred rupees is in arrear and unpaid for
three months after becoming due.
(3) When a sale has been made in professed exercise of such a power, the title of the purchaser shall not be
impeachable on the ground that no case had arisen to authorise the sale, or that due notice was not given, or
that the power was otherwise improperly or irregularly exercised; but any person damnified by an
unauthorised or improper or irregular exercise of the power shall have his remedy in damages against the
person exercising the power.
(4) The money which is received by the mortgagee, arising from the sale, after discharge of prior
encumbrances, if any, to which the sale is not made subject, or after payment into court under section 57 of a
sum to meet any prior encumbrance, shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, be held by him in trust
to be applied by him, first, in payment of all costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him as incident
to the sale or any attempted sale; and, secondly, in discharge of the mortgage-money and costs and other
money, if any, due under the mortgage; and the residue of the money so received shall be paid to the person
entitled to the mortgaged property, or authorised to give receipts for the proceeds of the sale thereof.
(5) Nothing in this section or in section 69A applies to powers conferred before the first day of July, 1882.
69A. Appointment of receiver
of sub-section (2), be entitled to appoint, by writing signed by him or on his behalf, a receiver of the income of
the mortgaged property or any part thereof.
(2) Any person who has been named in the mortgage-deed and is willing and able to act as receiver may be
appointed by the mortgagee.
If no person has been so named, or if all persons named are unable or unwilling to act, or are dead, the
mortgagee may appoint any person to whose appointment the mortgagor agrees; failing such agreement, the
mortgagee shall be entitled to apply to the court for the appointment of a receiver, and any person appointed
by the court shall be deemed to have been duly appointed by the mortgagee.
A receiver may at any time be removed by writing signed by or on behalf of the mortgagee and the mortgagor,
or by the court on application made by either party and on due cause shown.
A vacancy in the office of receiver may be filled in accordance with the provisions of this sub-section.
(3) A receiver appointed under the powers conferred by this section shall be deemed to be the agent of the
mortgagor, and the mortgagor shall be solely responsible for the receiver’s act or defaults, unless the
mortgage-deed otherwise provides or unless such acts or defaults are due to the improper intervention of the
(4) The receiver shall have power to demand and recover all the income of which he is appointed receiver, by
suit, execution or otherwise, in the name either of the mortgagor or of the mortgagee to the full extent of the
interest which the mortgagor could dispose of, and to give valid receipts accordingly for the same, and to
exercise any powers which may have been delegated to him by the mortgagee, in accordance with the
(5) A person paying money to the receiver shall not be concerned to inquire if the appointment of the receiver
was valid or not.
(6) The receiver shall be entitled to retain out of any money received by him, for his remuneration, and in
satisfaction of all costs, charges and expenses incurred by him as receiver, a commission at such rate not
exceeding five per cent, on the gross amount of all money received as is specified in his appointment, and, if
no rate is so specified, then at the rate of five per cent on that gross amount, or at such other rate as the court
thinks fit to allow, on application made by him for that purpose.
(7) The receiver shall, if so directed in writing by the mortgagee, insure to the extent, if any, to which the
mortgagee might have insured, and keep insured against loss or damage by fire, out of the money received
by him, the mortgaged property or any part thereof being of an insurable nature.
(8) Subject to the provisions of this Act as to the application of insurance money, the receiver shall apply all
the money received by him as follows, namely,(
i) in discharge of all rents, taxes, land revenue, rates and outgoings whatever affecting the mortgaged
(ii) in keeping down all annual sums or other payments, and the interest on all principal sums, having priority
to the mortgage in right whereof he is receiver;
(iii) in payment of his commission, and of the premiums of fire, life or other insurances, if any, properly
payable under the mortgage-deed or under this Act, and the cost of executing necessary or proper repairs
directed in writing by the mortgagee;
(iv) in payment of the interest falling due under the mortgage;
(v) in or towards discharge of the principal money, if so directed in writing by the mortgagee,
and shall pay the residue, of any of the money received by him to the person who, but for the possession of
the receiver, would have been entitled to receive the income of which he is appointed receiver, or who is
otherwise entitled to the mortgaged property.
(9) The provisions of sub-section (1) apply only if and as far as a contrary intention is not expressed in the
(b) A mortgages a certain plot of building land to B and afterwards erects a house on the plot. For the
mortgage-deed; and the provisions of sub-sections (3) to (8) inclusive may be varied or extended by the
mortgage-deed; and, as so varied or extended, shall, as far as may be, operate in like manner and with all the
like incidents, effects and consequences, as if such variations or extensions were contained in the said subsections.
(10) Applications may be made, without the institution of a suit, to the court for its opinion, advice or direction
on any present question respecting the management or administration of the mortgaged property, other than
questions of difficulty or importance not proper in the opinion of the court for summary disposal, A copy of
such application shall be served upon, and the hearing thereof may be attended by such of the persons
interested in the application as the court may think fit.
The costs of every application under this sub-section shall be in the discretion of the court.
(11) In this section, “the court” means the court which would have jurisdiction in a suit to enforce the
70. Accession to mortgaged property
If, after the date of a mortgage, any accession is made to the mortgaged property, the mortgagee, in the
absence of a contract to the contrary, shall, for the purposes of the security, be entitled to such accession.
(a) A mortgages to B a certain field bordering on a river. The field is increased by alluvion. For the purposes of
his security, B is entitled to the increase.
purposes of his security, B is entitled to the house as well as the. plot.
71. Renewal of mortgaged lease
When the mortgaged property is a lease and the mortgagor obtains a renewal of the lease, the mortgagee, in
the absence of a contract to the contrary, shall, for the purposes of the security, be entitled to the new lease.
72. Rights of mortgagee, in possession
A mortgagee may spend such money as is necessary
(b) for the preservation of the mortgaged property from destruction, forfeiture or sale;
(c) for supporting the mortgagor’s title to the property;
(d) for making his own title thereto good against the mortgagor; and
(e) when the mortgaged property is a renewable lease-hold, for the renewal of the lease,
and may, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, add such money to the principal money, at the rate of
interest payable on the principal, and, where no such rate is fixed, at the rate of nine percent per annum: ‘
PROVIDED that the expenditure of money by the mortgagee under clause (b) or clause (c) shall not be
deemed to be necessary unless the mortgagor has been called upon and has failed to take proper and timely
steps to preserve the property or to support the title.
Where the property is by its nature insurable, the mortgagee may also, in the absence of a contract to the
contrary, insure and keep insured against loss or damage by fire the whole or any part of such property, and
the premiums paid for any such insurance shall be added to the principal money with interest at the same rate
as is payable on the principal money or, where no such rate is fixed, at the rate of nine per cent per annum.
But the amount of such insurance shall not exceed the amount specified in this behalf in the mortgage-deed
or (if no such amount is therein specified) two-thirds of the amount that would be required in case of total
destruction to reinstate the property insured.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise the mortgagee to insure when an insurance of the
property is kept up by or on behalf of the mortgagor to the amounts in which the mortgagee is hereby
authorised to insure.
73. Right to proceeds of revenue sale or compensation on acquisition
(1) Where the mortgaged property or any part thereof or any interest therein is sold owing to failure to pay
arrears or revenue or other charges of a public nature or rent due in respect of such property, and such failure
did not arise from any default of the mortgagee, the mortgagee shall be entitled to claim payment of the
mortgage-money, in whole or in part, out of any surplus of the sale-proceeds remaining after payment of the
arrears and of all charges and deductions directed by law.
(2) Where the mortgaged property or any part thereof or any interest therein is acquired under the Land
Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894), or any other enactment for the time being in force providing for the
compulsory acquisition of immovable property, the mortgagee shall be entitled to claim payment of the
mortgage-money, in whole or in part, out of the amount due to the mortgagor as compensation.
(3) Such claims shall prevail against all other claims except those of prior encumbrances, and may be
enforced notwithstanding the principal money on the mortgage has not become due.
74. Right of subsequent mortgagee to pay off prior mortgagee
[Repealed by the Transfer of Property (Amendment) Act, 1929.]
75. Rights of mesne mortgagee against prior and subsequent mortgagees
[Repealed by the Transfer of Property (Amendment) Act, 1929.]
76. Liabilities of mortgagee in possession
When, during the continuance of the mortgage, the mortgagee takes possession of the mortgaged property, (
a) he must manage the property as a person of ordinary prudence would manage it if it were his own;
(b) he must try his best endeavours to collect the rents and profits thereof;
(c) he must, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, out of the income of the property, pay the
government revenue, all other charges of a public nature and all rent accruing due in respect thereof during
such possession, and any arrears of rent in default of payment of which the property may be summarily sold;
(d) he must in the absence of a contract to the contrary, make such necessary repairs of the property as he
amount therefrom on account of any expenses incurred after such date or time in connection with the
can pay for out of the rents and profits thereof after deducting from such rents and profits the payments
mentioned in clause (c) and the interest on the principal money;
(e) he must not commit any act which is destructive or permanently injurious to the property;
(f) where he has insured the whole or any part of the property against loss or damage by fire, he must, in case
of such loss or damage, apply any money which he actually receives under the policy or so much thereof as
may be necessary, in reinstating the property, or, if the mortgagor so directs, in reduction or discharge of the
(g) he must keep clear, full and accurate accounts of all sums received and spent by him as mortgagee, and,
at any time during the continuance of the mortgage, give the mortgagor, at his request and cost, true copies of
such accounts and of the vouchers by which they are supported;
(h) his receipts from the mortgaged property, or, where such property is personally occupied by him, a fair
occupation-rent in respect thereof, shall, after deducting the expenses properly incurred for the management
of the property and the collection of rents and profits and the other expenses mentioned in clauses (c) and (d),
and interest thereon, be debited against him in reduction of the amount (if any) from time to time due to him
on account of interest and, so far as such receipts exceed any interest due, in reduction or discharge of the
mortgage-money; the surplus, if any, shall be paid to the mortgagor;
(i) when the mortgagor tenders, or deposits in the manner hereinafter provided, the amount for the time being
due on the mortgage, the mortgagee must, notwithstanding the provisions in the other clauses of this section,
account for his receipts from the mortgaged property from the date of the tender or from the earliest time
when he could take such amount out of court, as the case may be, and shall not be entitled to deduct any
Loss occasioned by his default-If the mortgagee fails to perform any of the duties imposed upon him by this
section, he may, when accounts are taken in pursuance of a decree made under this Chapter, be debited with
the loss, if any, occasioned by such failure.
77. Receipts in lieu of interest
Nothing in section 76, clauses (b), (d), (g) and (h), applies to cases where there is a contract between the
mortgagee and the mortgagor that the receipts from the mortgaged property shall, so long as the mortgagee
is in possession of the property, be taken in lieu of interest on the principal money, or in lieu of such interest
and defined portions of the principal.
78. Postponement of prior mortgagee
Where, through the fraud, misrepresentation or gross neglect of prior mortgagee, another person has been
induced to advance money on the security of the mortgaged property, the prior mortgagee shall be postponed
to the subsequent mortgagee.
79. Mortgage to secure uncertain amount when maximum is expressed
If a mortgage made to secure future advances, the performance of an engagement or the balance of a
running account, expresses the maximum to be secured thereby, a subsequent mortgage of the same
property shall, if made with notice of the prior mortgage, be postponed to the prior mortgage in respect of all
advances or debits not exceeding the maximum, though made or allowed with notice of the subsequent
A mortgages Sultanpur to his bankers, B & Co., to secure the balance of his account with them to the extent
of Rs.10,000. A then mortgages Sultanpur to C, to secure Rs.10,000, C having notice of the mortgage to B &
Co., and C gives notice to B & Co. of the second mortgage. At the date of the second mortgage, the balance
due to B & Co. does not exceed Rs.5,000. B & Co. subsequently advance to A sums making the balance of
the account against him exceed the sum of Rs.10,000. B & Co. are entitled, to the extent of Rs.10,000, to
priority over C.
80. Tacking abolished
[Repealed by the Transfer of Property (Amendment) Act, 1929 (20 of 1929).]
MARSHALLING AND CONTRIBUTION
81. Marshalling securities
If the owner of two or more properties mortgages them to one person and then mortgages one or more of the
properties to another person, the subsequent mortgage is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary,
entitled to have the prior mortgage-debt satisfied out of the property or properties not mortgaged to him, so far
as the same will extend, but not so as to prejudice the rights of the prior mortgagee or of any other person
who has for consideration acquired an interest in any of the properties.
82. Contribution to mortgage-debt
Where property subject to a mortgage belongs to two or more persons having distinct and separate rights of
ownership therein, the different shares in or parts of such property owned by such persons are, in the
absence of a contract to the contrary, liable to contribute rateably to the debt secured by the mortgage, and,
for the purpose of determining the rate at which each such share or part shall contribute, the value thereof
shall be deemed to be its value at the date of the mortgage after deduction of the amount of any other
mortgage or charge to which it may have been subject on that date.
Where, of two properties belonging to the same owner, one is mortgaged to secure one debt and then both
are mortgaged to secure another debt, and the former debt is paid out of the former property, each property
is, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, liable to contribute rateably to the latter debt after deducting
the amount of former debt from the value of the property out of which it has been paid.
Nothing in this section applies to a property liable under section 81 to the claim of the subsequent mortgage.
DEPOSIT IN COURT
83. Power to deposit in court money due on mortgage
At any time after the principal money payable in respect of any mortgage has become due and before a suit
for redemption of the mortgaged property is barred, the mortgagor, or any other person entitled to institute
such suit, may deposit, in any court in which he might have instituted such suit, to the account of the
mortgagee, the amount remaining due on the mortgage.
Right to money deposited by mortgagor-The court shall thereupon cause written notice of the deposit to be
served on the mortgagee, and the mortgagee may, on presenting a petition (verified in manner prescribed by
law for the verification of plaints) stating the amount then due on the mortgage, and his willingness to accept
the money so deposited in full discharge of such amount, and on depositing in the same court the mortgage-
deed and all documents in his possession or power relating to the mortgaged property, apply for and receive
the money, and the mortgage-deed, and all such other documents so deposited shall be delivered to the
mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid
Where the mortgagee is in possession of the mortgaged property, the court shall, before paying to him the
amount so deposited direct him to deliver possession thereof to the mortgagor and at the cost of the
mortgagor either to re-transfer the mortgaged property to the mortgagor or to such third person as the
mortgagor may direct or to execute and (where the mortgage has been effected by a registered instrument)
have registered an acknowledgement in writing that any right in derogation of the mortgagor’s interest
transferred to the mortgagee has been extinguished.
84. Cessation of interest
When the mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid has tendered or deposited in court under section 83
the amount remaining due on the mortgage, interest on the principal money shall cease from the date of the
tender or in the case of a deposit, where no previous tender of such amount has been made as soon as the
mortgagor or such other person as aforesaid has done all that has to be done by him to enable the mortgagee
to take such amount out of court, and the notice required by section 83 has been served on the mortgagee:
PROVIDED that, where the mortgagor has deposited such amount without having made a previous tender
thereof and has subsequently withdrawn the same or any part thereof, interest on the principal money shall be
payable from the date of such withdrawal.
Nothing in this section or in section 83 shall be deemed to deprive the mortgagee of his right to interest when
there exists a contract that he shall be entitled to a reasonable notice before payment or tender of the
mortgage-money and such notice has not been given before the making of the tender or deposit, as the case may be.
SUITS FOR FORECLOSURE, SALE OR REDEMPTION
85. Parties to suits for foreclosure, sale and redemption
[Repealed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).]
FORECLOSURE AND SALE
Sections 86 to 90 [
Repealed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).]
91. Persons who may sue for redemption
Besides the mortgagor, any of the following persons may redeem, or institute a suit for redemption of, the
mortgaged property, namely,(
a) any person (other than the mortgagee of the interest sought to be redeemed) who has any interest in, or
charge upon, the property mortgaged or in or upon the right to redeem the same;
(b) any surety for the payment of the mortgage-debt or any part thereof; or
(c) any creditor of the mortgagor who has in a suit for the administration of his estate obtained a decree for
sale of the mortgaged property.
Any of the persons referred to in section 91 (other than the mortgagor) and any co-mortgagor shall, on
redeeming property subject to the mortgage, have, so far as regards redemption, foreclosure or sale of such
property, the same rights as the mortgagee whose mortgage he redeems may have against the mortgagor or
any other mortgagee.
The right conferred by this section is called the right of subrogation, and a person acquiring the same is said
to be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee whose mortgage he redeems.
A person who has advanced to a mortgagor money with which the mortgage has been redeemed shall be
subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee whose mortgage has been redeemed, if the mortgagor has by a
registered instrument agreed that such persons shall be so subrogated. .
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer a right of subrogation on any person unless the mortgage in
respect of which the right is claimed has been redeemed in full.
93. Prohibition of tacking
No mortgagee paying off a prior mortgage, whether with or without notice of an intermediate mortgage, shall
thereby acquire any priority in respect of his original security; and, except in the case provided for by section
79, no mortgagee making a subsequent advance to the mortgagor, whether with or without notice of an
intermediate mortgage, shall thereby acquire any priority in respect of his security for such subsequent
94. Rights of mesne mortgagee
Where a property is mortgaged for successive debts to successive mortgagees, a mesne mortgagee has the
same rights against mortgagees posterior to himself as he has against the mortgagor.
95. Right of redeeming co-mortgagor to expenses
Where one of several mortgagors redeems the mortgaged property, he shall, in enforcing his right of
subrogation under section 92 against his co-mortgagors, be entitled to add to the mortgage money
recoverable from them such proportion of the expenses properly incurred in such redemption as is attributable
to their share in the property.
96. Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds
The provisions hereinbefore contained which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so far as may be, apply to a
mortgage by deposit of title-deeds.
101. No merger in case of subsequent encumbrance
redemption of the mortgaged property the amount sought to be tendered, and such deposit shall have the
97. Application of proceeds
[Repealed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908)]
98. Rights and liabilities of parties to anomalous mortgage
In the case of an anomalous mortgage the rights and liabilities of the parties shall be determined by their
contract as evidenced in the mortgage-deed, and, so far as such contract does not extend by local usage.
ATTACHMENT OF MORTGAGED PROPERTY
99. Attachment of mortgaged property
[Repealed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).]
Where immovable property of one person is by act of parties or operation of law made security for the
payment of money to another, and the transaction does not amount to a mortgage, the latter person is said to
have a charge on the property and all the provisions hereinbefore contained which apply to a simple mortgage
shall, so far as may be, apply to such charge.
Nothing in this section applies to the charge of a trustee on the trust-property for expenses properly incurred
in the execution of his trust, and, save as otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force,
no charge shall be enforced against any property in the hands of a person to whom such property has been
transferred for consideration and without notice of the charge.
Any mortgagee of, or person having a charge upon, immovable property, or any transferee from such
mortgagee or charge-holder, may purchase or otherwise acquire the rights in the property of the mortgagor or
owner, as the case may be, without thereby causing the mortgage or charge to be merged as between
himself and any subsequent mortgagee of, or person having a subsequent charge upon, the same property;
and no such subsequent mortgagee or charge-holder shall be entitled to foreclose or sell such property
without redeeming the prior mortgage or charge, or otherwise than subject thereto.
NOTICE AND TENDER
102. Service or tender on or to agent
Where the person on or to whom any notice or tender is to be served or made under this Chapter does not
reside in the district in which the mortgaged property or some part thereof is situate, service or tender on or to
an agent holding a general power of attorney from such person or otherwise duly authorised to accept such
service or tender shall be deemed sufficient.
Where no person or agent on whom such notice should be served can be found or is known to the person
required to serve the notice, the latter person may apply to any court in which a suit might be brought for
redemption of the mortgaged property, and such court shall direct in what manner such notice shall be
served, and any notice served in compliance with such direction shall be deemed sufficient:
PROVIDED that, in the case of a notice required to section 83, in the case of a deposit, the application shall
be made to the court in which the deposit has been made.
Where no person or agent to whom such tender should be made can be found or is known to the person
desiring to make the tender, the latter person may deposit in any court in which a suit might be brought for
effect of a tender of such amount.
103. Notice, etc., to or by person incompetent to contract
Where, under the provisions of this Chapter, a notice is to be served on or by, or a tender or deposit made or
accepted or taken out of court by, any person incompetent to contract, such notice may be s erved on or by or
tender or deposit made, accepted or taken, by the legal curator of the property of such person; but where
there is no such curator, and it is requisite or desirable in the interests of such person that a notice should be
served or a tender or deposit made under the provisions of this Chapter, application may be made to any
court in which a suit might be brought for the redemption of the mortgage to appoint a guardian ad litem for
the purpose of serving or receiving service of such notice, or making or accepting such tender, or making or
In the absence of a contract or local law or usage to the contrary, a lease of immovable property for
108. Rights and liabilities of lessor and lessee
taking out of court such deposit, and for the performance of all consequential acts which could or ought to be
done by such person if he were competent to contract; and the provisions of order XXXII in the Schedule I to
the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall, so far as may be, apply to such application and to parties
thereto and to the guardian appointed thereunder.
104. Power to make rules
The High Court may, from time to time, make rules consistent with this Act for carrying out, in itself and in the
Court of Civil Judicature subject to its superintendence, the provisions contained in this Chapter.
CHAPTER V OF LEASES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
105. Lease defined
A lease of immovable property is a transfer of a right to enjoy such property, made for a certain time, express
or implied, or in perpetuity, in consideration of a price paid or promised, or of money, a share of crops, service
or any other thing of value, to be rendered periodically or on specified occasions to the transferor by the
transferee, who accepts the transfer on such terms.
Lessor, lessee, premium and rent defined : The transferor is called the lessor, the transferee is called the
lessee, the price is called the premium, and the money, share, service or other thing to be so rendered is
called the rent.
106. Duration of certain leases in absence of written contract or local usage
agricultural or manufacturing purposes shall be deemed to be a lease from year to year, terminable, on the
part of either lessor or lessee, by six months’ notice expiring with the end of a year of the tenancy; and a lease
of immovable property for any other purpose shall be deemed to be a lease from month to month, terminable,
on the part of either lessor or lessee, by fifteen days’ notice expiring with the end of a month of the tenancy.
Every notice under this section must be in writing, signed by or on behalf of the person giving it, and either be
sent by post to the party who is intended to be bound by it or be tendered or delivered personally to such
party, or to one of his family or servants at his residence, or (if such tender or delivery is not practicable)
affixed to a conspicuous part of the property.
107. Leases how made
A lease of immovable property from year to year, or for any term exceeding one year or reserving a yearly
rent, can be made only by a registered instrument.
All other leases of immovable property may be made either by a registered instrument or by oral agreement
accompanied by delivery of possession.
Where a lease of immovable property is made by a registered instrument, such instrument or, where there are
more instruments than one, each such instrument shall be executed by both the lessor and the lessee:
PROVIDED that the State Government from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that
leases of immovable property, other than leases from year to year, or for any term exceeding one year, or
reserving a yearly rent, or any class of such leases, may be made by unregistered instrument or by oral
agreement without delivery of possession.
In the absence of a contract or local usage to the contrary, the lessor and the lessee of immovable property,
as against one another, respectively, possess the rights and are subject to the liabilities mentioned in the
rules next following, or such of them as are applicable to the property leased:
(A) Rights and liabilities of the lessor
(a) The lessor is bound to disclose to the lessee any material defect in the property, with reference to its
intended use, of which the former is and the latter is not aware, and which the latter could not with ordinary
(b) the lessor is bound on the lessee’s request to put him in possession of the property;
(c) the lessor shall be deemed to contract with the lessee that, if the latter pays the rent reserved by the lease
and performs the contracts binding on the lessee, he may hold the property during the time limited by the
lease without interruption.
The benefit of such contract shall be annexed to and go with the lessee’s interest as such, and may be
enforced by every person in whom that interest is for the whole or any part thereof from time to time vested.
(B) Rights and liabilities of the lessee
(d) If during the continuance of the lease any accession is made to the property, such accession (subject to
the law relating to alluvion for the time being in force) shall be deemed to be comprised in the lease;
(e) if by fire, tempest or flood, or violence of an army or of a mob, or other irresistible force, any material part
of the property be wholly destroyed or rendered substantially and permanently unfit for the purposes for which
it was let, the lease shall, at the option of the lessee, be void:
PROVIDED that, if the inquiry be occasioned by the wrongful act or default of the lessee, he shall be entitled
to avail himself of the benefit of this provision;
(f) if the lessor neglects to make, within a reasonable time after notice, any repairs which he is bound to make
to the property, the lessee may make the same himself, and deduct the expense of such repairs with interest
from the rent, or otherwise recover it from the lessor;
(g) if the lessor neglects to make any payment which he is bound to make, and which, if not made by him, is
recoverable from the lessee or against the property, the lessee may make such payment himself, and deduct
it with interest from the rent, or otherwise recover it from the lessor;
(h) the lessee may even after the determination of the lease remove, at any time whilst he is in possession of
the property leased but not afterwards all things which he has attached to the earth; provided he leaves the
property in the state in which he received it;
(i) when a lease of uncertain duration determines by any means except the fault of the lessee, he or his legal
representative is entitled to all the crops planted or sown by the lessee and growing upon the property when
the lease determines, and to free ingress and egress to gather and carry them;
(j) the lessee may transfer absolutely or by way of mortgage or sub-lease the whole or any part of his interest
in the property, and any transferee of such interest or part may again transfer it. The lessee shall not, by
reason only of such transfer, cease to be subject to any of the liabilities attaching to the lease;
nothing in this clause shall be deemed to authorise a tenant having an untransferable right of occupancy, the
farmer of an estate in respect of which default has been made in paying revenue, or the lessee of an estate
under the management of a Court of Wards, to assign his interest as such tenant, farmer or lessee;
(k) the lessee is bound to disclose to the lessor any fact as to the nature or extent of the interest which the
lessee is about to take of which the lessee is, and the lessor is not aware, and which materially increases the
value of such interest;
(1) the lessee is bound to pay or tender, at the proper time and place, the premium or rent to the lessor or his
agent in this behalf;
(m) the lessee is bound to keep, and on the termination of the lease to restore, the property in as good
condition as it was in at the time when he was put in possession, subject only to the changes caused by
reasonable wear and tear or irresistible force, and to allow the lessor and his agents, at all reasonable times
during the term, to enter upon the property and inspect the condition thereof and give or leave notice of any
defect in such condition; and, when such defect has been caused by any act or default on the part of the
lessee, his servants or agents, he is bound to make it good within three months after such notice has been
given or left;
(n) if the lessee becomes aware of any proceeding to recover the property or any part thereof, or of any
encroachment made upon, or any interference with, the lessor’s rights concerning such property, he is bound
to give, with reasonable diligence, notice thereof to the lessor;
(o) the lessee may use the property and its products (if any) as a person of ordinary prudence would use them
if they were his own; but he must not use, or permit another to use, the property for a purpose other than that
for which it was leased, or fell or sell timber, pull down or damage buildings belonging to the lessor, or work
mines or quarries not open when the lease was granted, or commit any other act which is destructive or
permanently injurious thereto;
(p) he must not, without the lessor’s consent, erect on the property any permanent structure, except for
(q) on the determination of the lease, the lessee is bound to put the lessor into possession of the property.
109. Rights of lessor’s transferee
If the lessor transfers the property leased, or any part thereof, or any part of his interest therein, the
transferee, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, shall possess all the rights, and, if the lessee so
elects, be subject to all the liabilities of the lessor as to the property or part transferred so long as he is the
owner of it; but the lessor shall not, by reason only of such transfer cease to be subject to any of the liabilities
imposed upon him by the lease, unless the lessee elects to treat the transferee as the person liable to him:
PROVIDED that the transferee is not entitled to arrears of rent due before the transfer, and that, if the lessee,
not having reason to believe that such transfer has been made, pays rent to the lessor, the lessee shall not be
liable to pay such rent over again to the transferee.
The lessor, the transferee and the lessee may determine what proportion of the premium or rent reserved by
the lease is payable in respect of the part so transferred, and, in case they disagree, such determination may
be made by any court having jurisdiction to entertain a suit for the possession of the property leased.
110. Exclusion of day on which term commences
Where the time limited by a lease of immovable property is expressed as commencing from a particular day,
in computing that time such day shall be excluded. Where no day of commencement is named, the time so
limited begins from the making of the lease.
Duration of lease for a year: Where the time so limited is a year or a number of years, in the absence of an
express agreement to the contrary, the lease shall last during the whole anniversary of the day from which
such time commences.
Option to determine lease: Where the time so limited is expressed to be terminable before its expiration, and
the lease omits to mention at whose option it is so terminable, the lessee, and not the lessor, shall have such
111. Determination of lease
A lease of immovable property determines(
a) by efflux of the time limited thereby,
(b) where such time is limited conditionally on the happening of some event-by the happening of such event,
(c) where the interest of the lessor in the property terminates on, or his power to dispose of the same extends
only to, the happening of any event-by the happening of such event,
(d) in case the interests of the lessee and the lessor in the whole of the property become vested at the same
time in one person in the same right,
(e) by express surrender, that is to say, in case the lessee yields up his interest under the lease to the lessor,
by mutual agreement between them,
(f) by implied surrender,
(g) by forfeiture; that is to say, (1) in case the lessee breaks an express condition which provides that, on
breach thereof, the lessor may re-enter; or (2) in case the lessee renounces his character as such by setting
up a title in a third person or by claiming title in himself; or (3) the lessee is adjudicated an insolvent and the
lease provides that the lessor may re-enter on the happening of such event; and in any of these cases the
lessor or his transferee gives notice in writing to the lessee of his intention to determine the lease,
(h) on the expiration of a notice to determine the lease, or to quit, or of intention to quit, the property leased,
duly given by one party to the other.
Illustration to clause (f)
A lessee accepts from his lessor a new lease of the property leased, to take effect during the continuance of
the existing lease. This is an implied surrender of the former lease, and such lease determines thereupon.
112. Waiver of forfeiture
A forfeiture under section 111, clause (g) is waived by acceptance of rent which has become due since the
forfeiture, or by distress for such rent, or by any other act on the part of the lessor showing an intention to
treat the lease as subsisting:
PROVIDED that the lessor is aware that the forfeiture has been incurred:
PROVIDED FURTHER that, where rent is accepted after the institution of a suit to eject the lessee on the
ground of forfeiture, such acceptance is not a waiver.
113. Waiver of notice to quit
A notice given under section 111, clause (h), is waived, with the express or implied consent of the person to
whom it is given, by any act on the part of the person giving it showing an intention to treat the lease as
(a) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice expires. B tenders and A
accepts, rent which has become due in respect of the property since the expiration of the notice. The notice is
(b) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice expires, and B remains in
possession. A gives to B as lessee a second notice to quit. The first notice is waived.
114. Relief against forfeiture for non-payment of rent
Where a lease of immovable property has been determined by forfeiture for non-payment of rent, and the
lessor sues to eject the lessee, if, at the hearing of the suit, the lessee pays or tenders to the lessor the rent in
arrear, together with interest thereon and his full costs of the suit, or gives such security as the court thinks
sufficient for making such payment within fifteen days, the court may, in lieu of making a decree for ejectment,
pass an order relieving the lessee against the forfeiture; and thereupon the lessee shall hold the property
leased as if the forfeiture had not occurred.
114A. Relief against forfeiture in certain other cases
Where a lease of immovable property has been determined by forfeiture for a breach of an express condition
which provides that on breach thereof the lessor may re-enter, no suit for ejectment shall lie unless and until
the lessor has served on the lessee a notice in writing
(a) specifying the particular breach complained of; and
(b) if the breach is capable of remedy, requiring the lessee to remedy the breach,
and the lessee fails, within a reasonable time from the date of the service of the notice, to remedy the breach,
if it is capable of remedy.
Nothing in this section shall apply to an express condition against the assigning, under-letting, parting with the
possession, or disposing, of the property leased, or to an express condition relating to forfeiture in case of
non-payment of rent.
115. Effect of surrender and forfeiture on underleases
117. Exemption of leases for agricultural purposes
transferee from him without consideration.
The surrender, express or implied, of a lease of immovable property does not prejudice an under lease of the
property or any part thereof previously granted by the lessee, on terms and conditions substantially the same
(except as regards the amount of rent) as those of the original lease; but, unless the surrender is made for the
purpose of obtaining a new lease, the rent payable by, and the contracts binding on, the underlessee shall be
respectively payable to and enforceable by the lessor.
The forfeiture of such a lease annuls all such underleases, except where such forfeiture has been procured by
the lessor in fraud of the underlessees, or relief against the forfeiture is granted under section 114.
116. Effect of holding over
If a lessee or underlessee of property remains in possession thereof after the determination of the lease
granted to the lessee, and the lessor or his legal representative accepts rent from the lessee or underlessee,
or otherwise assents to his continuing in possession, the lease is, in the absence of an agreement to the
contrary, renewed from year to year, or from month to month, according to the purpose for which the property
is leased, as specified in section 106.
(a) A lets a house to B for five years. B underlets the house to C at a monthly rent of Rs.100. The five years
expire, but C continues in possession of the house and pays the rent to A. C’s lease is renewed from month to
(b) A lets a farm to B for the life of C. C dies, but B continues in possession with A’s assent. B’s lease is
renewed from year to year.
None of the provisions of this Chapter apply to leases for agricultural purposes, except insofar as the State
Government may, by notification published in the Official Gazette, declare all or any of such provisions to be
so applicable in the case of all or any of such leases, together with, or subject to, those of the local law, if any,
for the time being in force.
Such notification shall not take effect until the expiry of six months from the date of its publication.
CHAPTER VI OF EXCHANGES
118. “Exchange” defined
When two persons mutually transfer the ownership of one thing for the ownership of another, neither thing or
both things being money only, the transaction is called an “exchange”.
A transfer of property in completion of an exchange can be made only in manner provided for the transfer of
such property by sale.
119. Right of party deprived of thing received in exchange
If any party to an exchange or any person claiming through or under such party is by reason of any defect in
the title of the other party deprived of the thing or any part of the thing received by him in exchange, then,
unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the exchange, such other party is liable to him or any
person claiming through or under him for loss caused thereby, or at the option of the person so deprived, for
the return of the thing transferred, if still in the possession of such other party or his legal representative or a
120. Rights and liabilities of parties
Save as otherwise provided in this Chapter, each party has the rights and is subject to the liabilities of a seller
as to that which he gives, and has the rights and is subject to the liabilities of a buyer as to that which he
121. Exchange of money
On an exchange of money, each party thereby warrants the genuineness of the money given by him.
CHAPTER VII OF GIFTS
122. “Gift” defined
“Gift” is the transfer of certain existing movable or immovable property made voluntarily and without
consideration, by one person, called the donor, to another, called the donor, and accepted by or on behalf of
Acceptance when to be made-Such acceptance must be made during the lifetime of the donor and while he is
still capable of giving.
If the donee dies before acceptance, the gift is void.
123. Transfer how effected
For the purpose of making a gift of immovable property, the transfer must be effected by a registered
instrument signed by or on behalf of the donor, and attested by at least two witnesses.
For the purpose of making a gift of movable property, the transfer may be effected either by a registered
instrument signed as aforesaid or by delivery.
Such delivery may be made in the same way as goods sold may be delivered.
124. Gift of existing and future property
A gift comprising both existing and future property is void as to the latter.
125. Gift to several of whom one does not accept
A gift of a thing to two or more donees, of whom one does not accept it, is void as to the interest which he
would have taken had he accepted.
126. When gift may be suspended or revoked
The donor and donee may agree that on the happening of any specified event which does not depend on the
will of the donor a gift shall be suspended or revoked; but a gift which the parties agree shall be revocable
wholly or in part, at the mere will of the donor, is void wholly or in part, as the case may be.
A gift may also be revoked in any of the cases (save want or failure of consideration) in which, if it were a
contract, it might be rescinded.
Save as aforesaid, a gift cannot be revoked.
Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to affect the rights of transferees for consideration without
(a) A gives a field to B, reserving to himself, with B’s assent, the right to take back the field in case B and his
descendants die before A. B dies without descendants in A’s lifetime. A may take back the field.
(b) A gives a lakh of rupees to B, reserving to himself, with B’s assent, the right to take back at pleasure
Rs.10,000 out of the lakh. The gift holds goods as to Rs.90,000, but is void as to Rs.10,000, which continue to
127. Onerous gifts
Where a gift in the form of a single transfer to the same person of several things of which one is, and the
others are not burdened by an obligation, the donee can take nothing by the gift unless he accepts it fully.
Where a gift is in the form of two or more separate and independent transfers to the same person of several
things, the donee is at liberty to accept one of them and refuse the others, although the former may be
beneficial and the latter onerous.
Onerous gift to disqualified person: A donee not competent to contract and accepting property burdened by
130. Transfer of actionable claim
(ii) A effects a policy on his own life with an insurance company and assigns it to a bank for securing the
any obligation is not bound by his acceptance. But if, after becoming competent to contract and being aware
of the obligation, he retains the property given, he becomes so bound.
(a) A has shares in X, a prosperous joint stock company, and also shares in Y, a joint stock company in
difficulties. Heavy calls are expected in respect of the shares in Y. A gives B all his shares in joint stock
companies. B refuses to accept the shares in Y. He cannot take the shares in X.
(b) A, having a lease for a term of years of a house at a rent which he and his representatives are bound to
pay during the term, and which is more than the house can be let for, gives to B the lease, and also, as a
separate and independent transaction, a sum of money. B refuses to accept the lease. He does not by this
refusal forfeit the money.
128. Universal donee
Subject to the provisions of section 127, where a gift consists of the donor’s whole property, the donee is
personally liable for all the debts due by and liabilities of the donor at the time of the gift to the extent of the
property comprised therein.
129. Saving of donations mortis causa and Mohammedan Law
Nothing in this Chapter relates to gifts of moveable property made in contemplation of death, or shall be
deemed to affect any rule of Mohammedan law.
CHAPTER VIII : OF TRANSFERS OF ACTIONABLE CLAIMS
(1) The transfer of an actionable claim whether with or without consideration shall be effected only by the execution of an instrument in writing signed by the transferor or his duly authorised agent, shall be complete and effectual upon the execution of such instruments, and thereupon all the rights and remedies of the transferor, whether by way of damages or otherwise, shall vest in the transferee, whether such notice of the transfer as is hereinafter provided be given or not:
PROVIDED that every dealing with the debtor other actionable claim by the debtor or other person from or against whom the transferor would, but for such instrument of transfer as aforesaid, have been entitled to recover or enforce such debt or other actionable claim, shall (save where the debtor or other person is a party to the transfer or has received express notice thereof as hereinafter provided) be valid as against such transfer.
(2) The transferee of an actionable claim may, upon the execution of such instrument of transfer as aforesaid, sue or institute proceedings for the same in his own name without obtaining the transferor’s consent to such suit or proceeding and without making him a party thereto.
Exception : Nothing in this section applies to the transfer of a marine or fire policy of insurance or affects the provisions of section 38 of the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938).
(i) A owes money to B, who transfers the debt to C. B then demands the debt from A, who, not having received notice of the transfer, as prescribed in section 131, pays B. The payment is valid, and C cannot sue A for the debt.
payment of an existing or future debt. If A dies, the bank is entitled to receive the amount of the policy and to sue on it without the concurrence of A’s executor, subject to the proviso in sub-section (1) of section 130 and to provisions of section 132.
130A. Transfer of policy of marine insurance
[Repealed by the Marine Insurance Act, 1963 (11 of 1963), w.e.f. 1-8-1963.]
131. Notice to be in writing, signed
Every notice of transfer of an actionable claim shall be in writing, signed by the transferor or his agent duly authorised in this behalf, or, in case the transferor refuses to sign, by the transferee or his agent, and shall state the name and address of the transferee.
132. Liability of transferee of actionable claim
The transferee of an actionable claim shall take it subject to all the liabilities and equities and to which the transferor was subject in respect thereof at the date of the transfer Every notice of transfer of an actionable claim shall be in writing, signed by the transferor or his agent duly authorised in this behalf, or, in case the transferor refuses to sign, by the transferee or his agent, and shall state the name and address of the transferee.
132. Liability of transferee of actionable claim
The transferee of an actionable claim shall take it subject to all the liabilities and equities and to which the
transferor was subject in respect thereof at the date of the transfer