The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPc)
437. When bail may be taken in case of non-bailable offence.
1[(1) When any person accused of, or suspected of, the commission of any non-bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station or appears or is brought before a court other than the High Court or Court of Session, he may be released on bail, but-
(i) Such person shall not be so released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life;
(ii) Such person shall not be so released if such offence is a cognizable offence and he had been previously convicted of an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for seven years or more, or he had been previously convicted on two or more occasions of 2[a cognizable offence punishable with imprisonment for three years or more but not less than seven years]:
Provided that the court may direct that a person referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) be released on bail if such person is under the age of sixteen years or is a woman or is sick or infirm:
Provided further that the court may also direct that a person referred to in clause (ii) be released on bail if it is satisfied that it is just and proper so to do for any other special reason:
Provided also that the mere fact that an accused person may be required for being identified by witnesses during investigation shall not be sufficient ground for refusing to grant bail if he is otherwise entitled to be released on bail and gives an undertaking that the shall comply with such directions as may be given by the court:]
3[Provided also that no person shall, if the offence allege to have been committed by him is punishable with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for seven years or more be released on bail by the Court under this sub-section without giving an opportunity of hearing to the Public Prosecutor.]
(2) If it appears to such officer or court at any stage of the investigation, inquiry or trial as the case may be, that there are not reasonable grounds for believing that the accused has committed a non-bailable offence, but that there are sufficient grounds for further inquiry into his guilt, 4[the accused shall, subject to the provisions of section 446A and pending such inquiry, be released on bail], or, at the discretion of such officer or court on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided.
(3) When a person accused or suspected of the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years or more or of an offence under Chapter VI, Chatter XVI or Chapter XVII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or abetment of, or conspiracy or attempt to commit, any such offence, is released on bail under sub-section (1) 5[the Court shall impose the conditions,-
(a) that such person shall attend in accordance with the conditions of the bond executed under this Chapter,
(b) that such person shall not commit an offence similar to the offence of which he is accused, or suspected, of the commission of which he is suspected, and
(c) that such person shall not directly or indirectly make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer or tamper with the evidence,
and may also impose, in the interests of justice, such other conditions as it considers necessary.]
(4) An officer or a court releasing any person on bail under sub-section (1), or sub- section (2), shall record in writing his or its 6[reasons or special reasons] for so doing.
(5) Any court which has released a person on bail under sub-section (1), or sub- section (2), may, if it considers it necessary so to do, direct that such person be arrested and commit him to Custody.
(6) If, any case triable by a Magistrate, the trial of a person accused of any non bailable offence is not Concluded within a period of sixty days from the first date fixed for – taking evidence in the case, such person shall, if he is in custody during the whole of the said period, be released on bail to the satisfaction of the Magistrate, unless for reasons to be recorded in writing, the Magistrate otherwise directs.
(7) If, at any time after the conclusion of the trial of a person accused of a non bailable offence and before Judgment is delivered the Court is of opinion that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty of any such offence, it shall release the accused, if he is in custody, on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance to hear judgment delivered.
Cr PC (Amendment) Act, 2005 (Notes on Clauses)
Section 437 has been amended to provide that if a person commits a cognizable and non-bailable offence and he has previously been convicted on two or more occasions of a cognizable offence punishable with imprisonment for 3 years or more but not less than 7 years, he shall not be released except in the circumstances specified in the provision.
It has further been provided that if an accused appears before the Court while in judicial custody and prays for bail, or a prayer for bail is made on his behalf, the Court shall grant bail only after giving an opportunity of hearing to the prosecution, if the offence allege to have been committed by the accused is punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for not less than 7 years.
Under sub-section (3) the Court has got the discretion to impose certain conditions for the grant of bail. Under section 441 (2), where any condition is imposed for the release of a person on bail, the bond shall contain that condition also. In order to make the provision stringent and to see that the person on bail does not interfere or intimidate witness, sub-section (3) has been amended to specify certain conditions, which are mandatory.
(i) In non-bailable cases in which the person is not guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, the court will exercise its discretion in favour of granting bail subject to sub-section (3) of section 437 if it deems necessary to act under it; Anil Sharma v. State of Himachal Pradesh, (1997) 3 Crimes 135 (HP).
(ii) Unless exceptional circumstances are brought to the notice of the court which may defeat the proper investigation and fair trial, the court will not decline bail to a person who is not accused of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life; Anil Sharma v. State of Himachal Pradesh, (1997) 3 Crimes 135 (HP).
(iii) It has been held that since the jurisdiction is discretionary, it is required to be exercised with great care and caution by balancing valuable right of liberty of an individual and the interest of the society in general; Mansab Ali v. Irsan, AIR 2003 SC 707.
1. Subs. by Act 63 of 1980. Sec. 5, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 23-9-1980).
2. Subs. by Act 25 of 2005, sec. 37, for “a non-bailable and cognizable offence”.
3. Ins. by Act 25 of 2005, sec. 37.
4. Subs. by Act 63 of 1980. Sec. 5. for certain words (w.e.f 23-9-1980) .
5. Subs. by Act 25 of 2005, sec. 37, for “the Court may impose any condition which the Court considers necessary-
(a) in order to ensure that such person shall attend in accordance with the conditions of the bond executed under this Chapter, or
(b) in ord
er to ensure that such person shall not commit an offence similar to the offence of which he is accused or of the commission of which he is suspected, or
(c) otherwise in the interests of justice.”
6. Subs. by Act 63 of 1980. Sec. 5, for “reasons” (w.e.f. 23-9-1980).