Section 40A – Income Tax Act, 1961

Income Tax Act, 1961

 

Section 40A. EXPENSES OR PAYMENTS NOT DEDUCTIBLE IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES.

 

(1) The provisions of this section shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other provision of this Act relating to the computation of income under the head “Profits and gains of business or profession”.

 

(2)(a) Where the assessee incurs any expenditure in respect of which payment has been or is to be made to any person referred to in clause (b) of this sub-section, and the Assessing Officer is of opinion that such expenditure is excessive or unreasonable having regard to the fair market value of the goods, services or facilities for which the payment is made or the legitimate needs of the business or profession of the assessee or the benefit derived by or accruing to him therefrom, so much of the expenditure as is so considered by him to be excessive or unreasonable shall not be allowed as a deduction;

 

(b) The persons referred to in clause (a) are the following, namely :- (i) Where the assessee is an any relative of the assessee; individual

 

(ii) Where the assessee is a any director of the company, company, firm, association partner of the firm, or member of of persons or Hindu undivided the association or family, or any family relative of such director, partner or member;

 

(iii) Any individual who has a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee, or any relative of such individual;

 

(iv) A company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family having substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee or any director, partner or member of such company, firm, association or family, or any relative of such director, partner or member;

 

(v) A company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family of which a director, partner or member, as the case may be, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of the assessee; or any director, partner or member of such company, firm, association or family or any relative of such director, partner or member;

 

(vi) Any person who carries on a business or profession, – (A) Where the assessee being an individual, or any relative of such assessee, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of that person; or

 

(B) Where the assessee being a company, firm, association of persons or Hindu undivided family, or any director of such company, partner of such firm or member of the association or family, or any relative of such director, partner, or member, has a substantial interest in the business or profession of that person.

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, a person shall be deemed to have a substantial interest in a business or profession, if – (a) In a case where the business or profession is carried on by a company, such person is, at any time during the previous year, the beneficial owner of shares (not being shares entitled to a fixed rate of dividend whether with or without a right to participate in profits) carrying not less than twenty per cent of the voting power; and

 

(b) In any other case, such person is, at any time during the previous year, beneficially entitled to not less than twenty per cent of the profits of such business or profession.

 

(3) Where the assessee incurs any expenditure 645 in respect of which payment is made, after such date (not being later than 31st day of March, 1969), as may be specified in this behalf by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette, in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, twenty per cent of such expenditure shall not be allowed as a deduction:

 

Provided that where an allowance has been made in the assessment for any year not being an assessment year commencing prior to the 1st day of April, 1969, in respect of any liability incurred by the assessee for any expenditure and subsequently during any previous year the assessee makes any payment in respect thereof in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, the allowance originally made shall be deemed to have been wrongly made and the Assessing Officer may recompute the total income of the assessee for the previous year in which such liability was incurred and make the necessary amendment, and the provisions of section 154 shall, so far as may be, apply thereto, the period of four years specified in sub-section (7) of that section being reckoned from the end of the assessment year next following the previous year in which the payment was so made : 

 

Provided further that no disallowance under this sub-section shall be made where any payment in a sum exceeding twenty thousand rupees is made otherwise than by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft, in such cases and under such circumstances as may be prescribed, having regard to the nature and extent of banking facilities available, considerations of business expediency and other relevant factors.

 

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any contract, where any payment in respect of any expenditure has to be made by a crossed cheque drawn on a bank or by a crossed bank draft in order that such expenditure may not be disallowed as a deduction under sub-section (3), then the payment may be made by such cheque or draft; and where the payment is so made or tendered, no person shall be allowed to raise, in any suit or other proceeding, a plea based on the ground that the payment was not made or tendered in cash or in any other manner.

 

(7)(a) Subject to the provisions of clause (b), no deduction shall be allowed in respect of any provision (whether called as such or by any other name) made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason.

 

(b) Nothing in clause (a) shall apply in relation to – (i) Any provision made by the assessee for the purpose of payment of a sum by way of any contribution towards an approved gratuity fund, or for the purpose of payment of any gratuity, that has become payable during the previous year;

 

(ii) Any provision made by the assessee for the previous year relevant to any assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 1973, but before the 1st day of April, 1976, to the extent the amount of such provision does not exceed the admissible amount, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:-

 

(1) The provision is made in accordance with an actuarial valuation of the ascertainable liability of the assessee for payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason;

 

(2) The assessee creates an approved gratuity fund for the exclusive benefit of his employees under an irrevocable trust, the application for the approval of the fund having been made before the 1st day of January, 1976; and

 

(3) A sum equal to at least fifty per cent. of the admissible amount, or where any amount has been utilised out of such provision for the purpose of payment of any gratuity before the creation of the approved gratuity fund, a sum equal to at least fifty per cent. of the admissible amount as reduced by the amount so utilised is paid by the assessee by way of contribution to the approved gratuity fund before the 1st day of April, 1976, and the balance of the admissible amount, or, as the case may be, the balance of the admissible amount as reduced by the amount so utilised, is paid by the assessee by way of such contribution before the 1st day of April, 1977.

 

Explanation 1 : For the purpose of sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of this sub-section, “admissible amount” means the amount of the provision made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason, to the extent such amount does not exceed an amount calculated at the rate of eight and one third per cent. of the salary [as defined in clause (h) of rule 2 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule] of each employee entitled to the payment of such gratuity for each year of his service in respect of which such provision is made.

 

Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where any provision made by the assessee for the payment of gratuity to his employees on their retirement or on termination of their employment for any reason has been allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the assessee for any assessment year, any sum paid out of such provision by way of contribution towards an approved gratuity fund or by way of gratuity to any employee shall not be allowed as a deduction in computing the income of the assessee of the previous year in which the sum is so paid.

 

(9) No deduction shall be allowed in respect of any sum paid by the assessee as an employer towards the setting up or formation of, or as contribution to, any fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860) or other institution, for any purpose, except where such sum is so paid, for the purposes and to the extent provided by or under clause (iv) or clause (v) of sub-section (1) of section 36 or, as required by or under any other law for the time being in force.

 

(10) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (9), where the Assessing Officer is satisfied that the fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution referred to in that sub-section has, before the 1st day of March, 1984, bonafide laid out or expended any expenditure (not being in the nature of capital expenditure) wholly and exclusively for the welfare of the employees of the assessee referred to in sub-section (9) out of the sum referred to in that sub-section, the amount of such expenditure shall, in case no deduction has been allowed to the assessee in respect of such sum and subject to the other provisions of this Act, be deducted in computing the income referred to in section 28 of the assessee of the previous year in which such expenditure is so laid out or expended, as if such expenditure had been laid out or expended by the assessee.

 

(11) Where the assessee has, before the 1st day of March, 1984, paid any sum to any fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution referred to in sub-section (9), then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law or in any instrument, he shall be entitled – (i) To claim that so much of the amount paid by him as has not been laid out or expended by such fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution (such amount being hereinafter referred to as the unutilised amount) be repaid to him, and where any claim is so made, the unutilised amount shall be repaid, as soon as may be, to him;

 

(ii) To claim that any asset, being land, building, machinery, plant or furniture acquired or constructed by the fund, trust, company, association of persons, body of individuals, society or other institution out of the sum paid by the assessee, be transferred to him, and where any claim is so made, such asset shall be transferred, as soon as may be, to him.

 

Related Judgements

 

TIRUPATI TRADING COMPANY v. COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX.

 

COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX v. RAJDEV SINGH & CO.

 

COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX v. SUNDARAM INDUSTRIES LTD

 

 

Previous | Naxt

 

Income Tax Act, 1961 

 

Indian Laws – Bare Acts

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *