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Section 53 – Indian Penal Code (IPC)


Indian Penal Code (IPC)


Section 53. Punishment

The punishments to which offenders are liable under the provisions of this Code are—


First.— Death;


1[Secondly.—Imprisonment for life;]




Fourthly. —Imprisonment, which is of two descriptions, namely:—


(1) Rigorous, that is, with hard labour;


(2) Simple;


Fifthly. —Forfeiture of property;


Sixthly. —Fine.




Compensation of victims of crime


Punishment and sentence both are clubbed together for their similarity in between; Ramesh Chandra v. State of Madhya Pradesh, 1999 (1) JCJ 223.


Reformative theory


(i) The reformative approach to punishment should be the object of criminal law, in order to promote rehabilitation without offending communal conscience and to secure social justice; Narotam Singh v. State of Punjab, AIR 1978 SC 1542.


(ii) The punishment till the rising of the Court, for the offence of grievous hurt and related offences, committed conjointly on a group by an accused person which had resulted in the hospitalisation of victim for four weeks, did not conform to any rational legal theory of behaviour, much less the reformatory theory of punishment; Raman v. Francis, (1988) Cr LJ 1359 (Ker).




1. Subs. by Act 26 of 1955, sec. 117 and Sch., for “Secondly—Transportation” (w.e.f. 1-1-1956).


2. Clause “Thirdly” omitted by Act 17 of 1949, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 6-4-1949).



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