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The Indian Succession Act,1925

The Indian Succession Act,1925







  Part I – Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Definitions
3 Power of State Government to exempt any race, sect or tribe in the State from operation of Act
  Part II – Domicile
4 Application of Part
5 Law regulating succession to deceased person’s immoveable and moveable property, respectively
6 One domicile only affects succession to moveables
7 Domicile of origin of person of legitimate birth
8 Domicile of origin of illegitimate child
9 Continuance of domicile of origin
10 Acquisition of new domicile
11 Special mode of acquiring domicile in India
12 Domicile not acquired by residence as representative of foreign Government, or as part of his family
13 Continuance of new domicile
14 Minor’s domicile
15 Domicile acquired by woman on marriage
16 Wife’s domicile during marriage
17 Minor’s acquisition of new domicile
18 Lunatic’s acquisition of new domicile
19 Succession to moveable property in India in absence of proof of domicile elsewhere
  Part III – Marriage
20 Interests and powers not acquired not lost by marriage
21 Effect of marriage between person domiciled and one not domiciled in India
22 Settlement of minor’s property in contemplation of marriage
  Part IV – Consanguinity
23 Application of Part
24 Kindred or consanguinity
25 Lineal consanguinity
26 Collateral consanguinity
27 Persons held for purpose of succession to be similarly related to deceased
28 Mode of computing of degrees of kindred
  Part V – Intestate Succession
  Chapter I – Preliminary
29 Application of Part
30 As to what property deceased considered to have died intestate
  Chapter II – Rules in cases of Intestates other than Parsis
31 Chapter not to apply to Parsis
32 Devolution of such property
33 Where intestate has left widow and lineal descendants, or widow and kindred only, or widow and no kindred
33A Special provision where intestate has left widow and no lineal descendants
34 Where intestate has left no widow, and where he has left no kindred
35 Rights of widower
36 Rules of distribution
37 Where intestate has left child or children only
38 Where intestate has left no child, but grandchild or grandchildren
39 Where intestate has left only great-grandchildren or remoter lineal descendants
40 Where intestate leaves lineal descendants not all in same degree of kindred to him, and those through whom the more remote are descended are dead
41 Rules of distribution where intestate has left no lineal descendants
42 Where intestate’s father living
43 Where intestate’s father dead, but his mother, brothers and sisters living
44 Where intestate’s father dead and his mother, a brother or sister, and children of any deceased brother or sister, living
45 Where intestate’s father dead and his mother and children of any deceased brother or sister living
46 Where intestate’s father dead, but his mother living and no brother, sister, nephew or niece
47 Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor father, nor mother
48 Where intestate has left neither lineal descendant, nor parent, nor brother, nor sister
49 Children’s advancements not brought into hotchpot
  Chapter III – Special Rules for Parsi Intestates
50 General principles relating to intestate succession
51 Division of intestate’s property among widow, widower, children and Parents
52 ————–
53 Division of share of predeceased child of intestate leaving lineal descendants
54 Division of property where intestate leaves no lineal descendant out leaves a widow or widower or a widow or widower of any lineal descendant
55 Division of property where intestate leaves neither lineal descendants nor a widow or widower nor a widow of any lineal descendant
56 Division of property where there is no relative entitled to succeed under the other provisions of this Chapter
  Part VI – Testamentary Succession
  Chapter I – Introductory
57 Application of certain provisions of Part to a class of wills made by Hindus, etc.
58 General application of Part
  Chapter II – Wills and Codicils
59 Person capable of making wills
60 Testamentary guardian
61 Will obtained by fraud, coercion or importunity
62 Will may be revoked or altered
  Chapter III – Execution of unprivileged Wills
63 Execution of unprivileged wills
64 Incorporation of papers by reference
  Chapter IV – Privileged Wills
65 Privileged wills
66 Mode of making, and rules for executing, privileged wills
  Chapter V – Attestation, Revocation, Alteration and Revival of Wills
67 Effect of gift to attesting witness
68 Witness not disqualified by interest or by being executor
69 Revocation of will by testator’s marriage
70 Revocation of unprivileged will or codicil
71 Effect of obliteration, interlineation or alteration in unprivileged will
72 Revocation of privileged will or codicil
73 Revival of unprivileged will
  Chapter VI – Construction of Wills
74 Wording of will
75 Inquiries to determine questions as to object or subject of will
76 Misnomer or misdescription of object
77 When words may be supplied
78 Rejection of erroneous particulars in description of subject
79 When part of description may not be rejected as erroneous
80 Extrinsic evidence admissible in cases of patent ambiguity
81 Extrinsic evidence inadmissible in case of patent ambiguity or deficiency
82 Meaning of clause to be collected from entire will
83 When words may be understood in restricted sense, and when in sense wider than usual
84 Which of two possible constructions preferred
85 No part rejected, if can be it reasonably construed
86 Interpretation of words repeated in different parts of will
87 Testator’s intention to be effectuated as far as possible
88 The last of two inconsistent clauses prevails
89 Will or bequest void for uncertainty
90 Words describing subject refer to property answering description at testator’s death
91 Power of appointment executed by general bequest
92 Implied gift to objects of power in default of appointment
93 Bequest to “heirs,” etc., of particular person without qualifying terms
94 Bequest to “representatives,” etc., of particular person
95 Bequest without words of limitation
96 Bequest in alternative
97 Effect of words describing a class added to bequest to person
98 Bequest to class of persons under general description only
99 Construction of terms.-In a will
100 Words expressing relationship denote only legitimate relatives or failing such relatives reputed legitimate
101 Rules of construction where will purports to make two bequests to same person
102 Constitution of residuary legatee
103 Property to which residuary legatee entitled
104 Time of vesting legacy in general terms
105 In what case legacy lapses
106 Legacy does not lapse if one of two joint legatees die before testator
107 Effect of words showing testator’s intention to give distinct shares
108 When lapsed share goes as undisposed of
109 When bequest to testator’s child or lineal descendant does not lapse on his death in testator’s lifetime
110 Bequest to A for benefit of B does not lapse by A’s death
111 Survivorship in case of bequest to described class
  Chapter VII – Void Bequests
112 Bequest to person by particular description, who is not in existence at testator’s death
113 Bequest to person not in existence at testator’s death subject to prior bequest
114 Rule against perpetuity
115 Bequest to a class some of whom may come under rules in sections 113 and 114
116 Bequest to take effect on failure of prior bequest
117 Effect of direction for accumulation
118 Bequest to religious or charitable uses
  Chapter VIII – Vesting of Legacies
119 Date of vesting of legacy when payment or possession postponed
120 Date of vesting when legacy contingent upon specified uncertain event
121 Vesting of interest in bequest to such members of a class as shall have attained particular age
  Chapter IX – Onerous Bequests
122 Onerous bequests
123 One of two separate and independent bequests to same person may be accepted, and other refused
  Chapter X – Contingent Bequests
124 Bequest contingent upon specified uncertain event, no time being mentioned for its occurrence
125 Bequest to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period not specified
  Chapter XI – Conditional Bequests
126 Bequest upon impossible condition
127 Bequest upon illegal or immoral condition
128 Fulfilment of condition precedent to vesting of legacy
129 Bequest to A and on failure of prior bequest to B
130 When second bequest not to take effect on failure of first
131 Bequest over, conditional upon happening or not happening of specified uncertain event
132 Condition must be strictly fulfilled
133 Original bequest not affected by invalidity of second
134 Bequest conditioned that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or not happen
135 Such condition must not be invalid under section 120
136 Result of legatee rendering impossible or indefinitely postponing act for which no time specified, and on non-performance of which subject matter to go over
137 Performance of condition, precedent or subsequent, within specified time. Further time in case of fraud
  Chapter XII – Bequests with Directions as to Application or Enjoyment
138 Direction that fund be employed in particular manner following absolute bequest of same to or for benefit of any person
139 Direction that mode of enjoyment of absolute bequest is to be restricted, to secure specified benefit for legatee
140 Bequest of fund for certain purposes, some of which cannot be fulfilled
  Chapter XIII – Bequests to an Executor
141 Legatee named as executor cannot take unless he shows intention to act as executor
  Chapter XIV – Specific Legacies
142 Specific legacy defined
143 Bequest of certain sum where stocks, etc., in which invested are described
144 Bequest of stock where testator had, at date of will, equal or greater amount of stock of same kind
145 Bequest of money where not payable until part of testator’s property disposed of in certain way
146 When enumerated articles not deemed specifically bequeathed
147 Retention, in form, of specific bequest to several persons in succession
148 Sale and investment of proceeds of property bequeathed to two or more persons in succession
149 Where deficiency of assets to pay legacies, specific legacy not to abate with general legacies
  Chapter XV – Demonstrative Legacies
150 Demonstrative legacy defined
151 Order of payment when legacy directed to be paid out of fund the subject of specific legacy
  Chapter XVI – Ademption of Legacies
152 Ademption explained
153 Non-ademption of demonstrative legacy
154 Ademption of specific bequest of right to receive something from third party
155 Ademption pro tanto by testator’s receipt of part of entire thing specifically bequeathed
156 Ademption pro tanto by testator’s receipt of portion of entire fund of which portion has been specifically bequeathed
157 Order of payment where portion of fund specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and legacy charged on same fund to another, and, testator having received portion of that fund, remainder insufficient to pay both legacies
158 Ademption where stock, specifically bequeathed, does not exist at testator’s death
159 Ademption pro tanto where stock, specifically bequeathed, exists in part only at testator’s death
160 Non-ademption of specific bequest of goods described as connected with certain place, by reason of removal
161 When removal of thing bequeathed does not constitute ademption
162 When thing bequeathed is a valuable to be received by testator from third person; and testator himself, or his representative, receives it
163 Change by operation of law of subject of specific bequest between date of will and testator’s death
164 Change of subject without testator’s knowledge
165 Stock specifically bequeathed lent to third party on condition that it be replaced
166 Stock specifically bequeathed sold but replaced, and belonging to testator at his death
  Chapter XVII – Payment of Liabilities in respect of the Subject of a Bequest
167 Non-liability of executor to exonerate specific legatees
168 Completion of testator’s title to things bequeathed to be at cost of his estate
169 Exoneration of legatee’s immoveable property for which land
170 Exoneration of specific legatee’s stock in joint-stock company
  Chapter XVIII – Bequests of Things described in General Terms
171 Bequest of thing described in general terms
  Chapter XIX – Bequests of the Interest or Produce of a Fund
172 Bequest of interest or produce of fund
  Chapter XX – Bequests of Annuities
173 Annuity created by will payable for life only unless contrary intention appears by will
174 Period of vesting where will directs that annuity be provided out of proceeds of property, or out of property generally, or where money bequeathed to be invested in purchase of annuity
175 Abatement of annuity
176 Where gift of annuity and residuary gift, whole annuity to be first satisfied
  Chapter XXI – Legacies to Creditors and Portioners
177 Creditor prima facie entitled to legacy as well as debt
178 Child prima facie entitled to legacy as well as portion
179 No ademption by subsequent provision for legatee
  Chapter XXII – Election
180 Circumstances in which election takes place
181 Devolution of interest relinquished by owner
182 Testator’s belief as to his ownership immaterial
183 Bequest for man’s benefit how regarded for purpose of election
184 Person deriving benefit indirectly not put to election
185 Person taking in individual capacity under will may in other character elect to take in opposition
186 Exception to provisions of last six sections
187 When acceptance of benefit given by will constitutes election to take under will
188 Circumstances in which knowledge or waiver is presumed or inferred
189 When testator’s representatives may call upon legatee to elect
190 Postponement of election in case of disability
  Chapter XXIII – Gifts in Contemplation of Death
191 Property transferable by gift made in contemplation of death
  Part VII – Protection of Property of Deceased
192 Person claiming right by succession to property of deceased may apply for relief against wrongful possession
193 Inquiry made by Judge
194 Procedure
195 Appointment of curator pending determination of proceeding
196 Powers conferrable on curator
197 Prohibition of exercise of certain powers by curators
198 Curator to give security and may receive remuneration
199 Report from Collector where estate includes revenue-paying land
200 Institution and defence of suits
201 Allowances to apparent owners pending custody by curator
202 Accounts to be filed by curator
203 Inspection of accounts and right of interested party to keep duplicate
204 Bar to appointment of second curator for same property
205 Limitation of time for application for curator
206 Bar to enforcement of Part against public settlement or legal directions by deceased
207 Court of Wards to be made curator in case of minors having property subject to its jurisdiction
208 Saving of right to bring suit
209 Effect of decision of summary proceeding
  Part VIII – Representative Title to Property of Deceased on Succession
210 Appointment of public curators
211 Character and property of executor or administrator as such
212 Right to intestate’s property
213 Right as executor or legatee when established
214 Proof of representative title a condition precedent to recovery through the Courts of debts from debtors of deceased persons
215 Effection certificate of subsequent probate or letters of administration
216 Grantee of probate or administration alone to sue, etc., until same revoked
  Part IX – Probate, Letters of Administration and Administration of Assets of Deceased
217 Application of Part
  Chapter I – Grant of Probate and Letters of Administration
218 To whom administration may be granted, where deceased is a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person
219 Where deceased is not a Hindu, Muhammadan, Buddhist, Sikh, Jaina or exempted person
220 Effect of letters of administration
221 Acts not validated by administration
222 Probate only to appointed executor
223 Persons to whom probate cannot be granted
224 Grant of probate to several executors simultaneously or at different times
225 Separate probate of codicil discovered after grant of probate
226 Accrual of representation to surviving executor
227 Effect of probate
228 Administration, with copy annexed, of authenticated copy of will proved abroad
229 Grant of administration where executor has not renounced
230 Form and effect of renunciation of executor-ship
231 Procedure where executor renounces or fails to accept within time limited
232 Grant of administration to universal or residuary legatees
233 Right to administration of representative of deceased residuary legatee
234 Grant of administration where no executor, nor residuary legatee nor representative of such legatee
235 Citation before grant of administration to legatee other than universal or residuary
236 To whom administration may not be granted
236A Laying of rules before State Legislature
  Chapter II – Limited Grants
237 Probate of copy or draft of lost will
238 Probate of contents of lost or destroyed will
239 Probate of copy where original exists
240 Administration until will produced
241 Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent executor
242 Administration, with will annexed, to attorney of absent person who, if present, would be entitled to administer
243 Administration to attorney of absent person entitled to administer in case of intestacy
244 Administration during minority of sole executor or residuary legatee
245 Administration during minority of several executors or residuary legatees
246 Administration for use and benefit of lunatic or minor
247 Administration pendente lite
248 Probate limited to purpose specified in will
249 Administration, with will annexed, limited to particular purpose
250 Administration limited to property in which person has beneficial interest
251 Administration limited to suit
252 Administration limited to purpose of becoming party to suit to be brought against administrator
253 Administration limited to collection and preservation of deceased’s property
254 Appointment, as administrator, of person other than one who, in ordinary circumstances, would be entitled to administration
255 Probate or administration, with will annexed, subject to exception
256 Administration with exception
257 Probate or administration of rest
258 Grant of effects unadministered
259 Rules as to grants of effects unadministered
260 Administration when limited grant expired and still some part of estate unadministered
  Chapter III – Alteration and Revocation of Grants
261 What errors may be rectified by Court
262 Procedure where codicil discovered after grant of administration with will annexed
263 Revocation or annulment for just cause
  Chapter IV – Practice in granting and revoking Probates and Letters of Administration
264 Jurisdiction of District Judge in granting and revoking probates, etc
265 Power to appoint delegate of District Judge to deal with non-contentious cases
266 District Judge’s powers as to grant of probate and administration
267 District Judge may order person to produce testamentary papers
268 Proceedings of District Judge’s Court in relation to probate and administration
269 When and how District Judge to interfere for protection of property
270 When probate or administration may be granted by District Judge
271 Disposal of application made to Judge of district in which deceased had no fixed abode
272 Probate and letters of administration may be granted by Delegate
273 Conclusiveness of probate or letters of administration
274 Transmission to High Courts of certificate of grants under proviso to section 273
275 Conclusiveness of application for probate or administration if properly made and verified
276 Petition for probate
277 In what cases translation of will to be annexed to petition. Verification of translation by person other than Court translator
278 Petition for letters of administration
279 Addition to statement in petition, etc., for probate or letters of administration in certain cases
280 Petition for probate, etc., to be signed and verified
281 Verification of petition for probate, by one witness to will
282 Punishment for false averment in petition or declaration
283 Powers of District Judge
284 Caveats against grant of probate or administration
285 After entry of caveat, no proceeding taken on petition until after notice to caveator
286 District Delegate when not to grant probate or administration
287 Power to transmit statement to District Judge in doubtful cases where no contention
288 Procedure where there is contention, or District Delegate thinks probate or letters of administration should be refused in his Court
289 Grant of probate to be under seal of Court
290 Grant of letters of administration to be under seal of Court
291 Administration-bond
292 Assignment of administration-bond
293 Time for grant of probate and administration
294 Filing of original wills of which probate or administration with will annexed granted
295 Procedure in contentious cases
296 Surrender of revoked probate or letters of administration
297 Payment to executor or administrator before probate or administration revoked
298 Power to refuse letters of administration
299 Appeals from orders of District Judge
300 Concurrent jurisdiction of High Court
301 Removal of executor or administrator and provision for successor
302 Directions to executor or administrator
  Chapter V – Executors of their own Wrong
303 Executor of his own wrong
304 Liability of executor of his own wrong
  Chapter VI – Powers of an Executor or Administrator
305 In respect of causes of action surviving deceased and debts due at death
306 Demands and rights of action of or against deceased survive to and against executor or administrator
307 Power of executor or administrator to dispose of property
308 General powers of administration
309 Commission or agency charges
310 Purchase by executor or administrator of deceased’s property
311 Powers of several executors or administrators exercisable by one
312 Survival of powers on death of one of several executors or administrators
313 Powers of administrator of effects unadministered
314 Powers of administrator during minority
315 Powers of married executrix or administratrix
  Chapter VII – Duties of an Executor or Administrator
316 As to deceased’s funeral
317 Inventory and account
318 Inventory to include property in any part of India in certain cases
319 As to property of, and debts owing to, deceased
320 Expenses to be paid before all debts
321 Expenses to be paid next after such expenses
322 Wages for certain services to be next paid, and then other debts
323 Save as aforesaid, all debts to be paid equally and rateably
324 Application of moveable property to payment of debts where domicile not in India
325 Debts to be paid before legacies
326 Executor or administrator not bound to pay legacies without indemnity
327 Abatement of general legacies
328 Non-abatement of specific legacy when assets sufficient to pay debts
329 Right under demonstrative legacy when assets sufficient to pay debts and necessary expenses
330 Rateable abatement of specific legacies
331 Legacies treated as general for purpose of abatement
  Chapter VIII – Assent to a Legacy by Executor or Administrator
332 Assent necessary to complete legatee’s title
333 Effect of executor’s assent to specific legacy
334 Conditional assent
335 Assent of executor to his own legacy
336 Effect of executor’s assent
337 Executor when to deliver legacies
  Chapter IX – Payment and Apportionment of Annuities
338 Commencement of annuity when no time fixed by will
339 When annuity, to be paid quarterly or monthly, first falls due
340 Dates of successive payments when first payment directed to be made within a given time or on day certain: death of annuitant before date of payment
  Chapter X – Investment of Funds to provide for Legacies
341 Investment of sum bequeathed, where legacy, not specific, given for life
342 Investment of general legacy, to be paid at future time: disposal of intermediate interest
343 Procedure when no fund charged with, or appropriated to, annuity
344 Transfer to residuary legatee of contingent bequest
345 Investment of residue bequeathed for life, without direction to invest in particular securities
346 Investment of residue bequeathed for life, with direction to invest in specified securities
347 Time and manner of conversion and investment
348 Procedure where minor entitled to immediate payment or possession of bequest, and no direction to pay to person on his behalf
349 Legatee’s title to produce of specific legacy
  Chapter XI – Produce and Interest of Legacies
350 Residuary legatee’s title to produce of residuary fund
351 Interest when no time fixed for payment of general legacy
352 Interest when time fixed
353 Rate of interest
354 No interest on arrears of annuity within first year after testator’s death
355 Interest on sum to be invested to produce annuity
  Chapter XII – Refunding of Legacies
356 Refund of legacy paid under Court’s orders
357 No refund if paid voluntarily
358 Refund when legacy has become due on performance of condition within further time allowed under section 137
359 When each legatee compellable to refund in proportion
360 Distribution of assets
361 Creditor may call upon legatee to refund
362 When legatee, not satisfied or compelled to refund under section 361, cannot oblige one paid in full to refund
363 When unsatisfied legatee must first proceed against executor, if solvent
364 Limit to refunding of one legatee to another
365 Refunding to be without interest
366 Residue after usual payments to be paid to residuary legatee
367 Transfer of assets from India to executor or administrator in country of domicile for distribution
  Chapter XIII – Liability of an Executor or Administrator for Devastation
368 Liability of executor or administrator for devastation
369 Liability of executor or administrator for neglect to get any part of property
  Part X – Succession Certificates
370 Restriction on grant of certificates under this Part
371 Court having jurisdiction to grant certificate
372 Application for certificate
373 Procedure on application
374 Contents of certificate
375 Requisition of security from grantee of certificate
376 Extension of certificate
377 Forms of certificate and extended certificate
378 Amendment of certificate in respect of powers as to securities
379 Mode of collecting Court-fees on certificates
380 Local extent of certificate
381 Effect of certificate
382 Effect of certificate granted or extended by Indian representative in foreign State and in certain other cases
383 Revocation of certificate
384 Appeal
385 Effect on certificate of previous certificate, probate or letters of administration
386 Validation of certain payments made in good faith to holder of invalid certificate
387 Effect of decisions under this Act, and liability of holder of certificate thereunder
388 Investiture of inferior Courts with jurisdiction of District Court for purposes of this Act
389 Surrender of superseded and invalid certificates
390 Provisions with respect to certificates under Bombay Regulation 8 of 1827
391 Saving
  Schedule I
  Schedule II
  Schedule III
  Schedule IV
  Schedule V
  Schedule VI
  Schedule VII
  Schedule VIII


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