The Indian Contract Act, 1872
63. Promise may dispense with or remit performance of promise
Every promise may dispense with or remit, wholly or in part, the performance of the promise made to him, or may extend the time for such performance, 1or may accept instead of it any satisfaction which he thinks fit.
(a) A promises to paint a picture for B. B afterwards forbids him to do so. A is no longer bound to perform the promise.
(b) A owes B 5,000 rupees. A pays to B, and B accepts, in satisfaction of the whole debt, 2,000 rupees paid at the time and place at which the 5,000 rupees were payable. The whole debt is discharged.
(c) A owes B 5,000 rupees. C pays to B 1,000 rupees, and B accepts them, in satisfaction of his claim on A. This payment is a discharge of the whole claim.2
(d) A owes B, under a contract, a sum of money, the amount of which has not been ascertained. A, without ascertaining the amount, gives to B, and B, in satisfaction thereof, accepts, the sum of 2,000 rupees. This is a discharge of the whole debt, whatever may be its amount.
(e) A owes B 2,000 rupees, and is also indebted to another creditors. A makes an arrangement with his creditors, including B, to pay them a 3[composition] of eight annas in the rupee upon their respective demands. Payment to B of 1,000 rupees is a discharge of B’s demand.
Becomes void – discovered to be void
Section 65 starts from the basis of there being an agreement or contract between competent parties and has no application to a case in which there never was, and never could have been any contract, e.g. where one of the parties was a minor; Mohori Bibee v. Dharmodas Ghose, (1903) ILR 30 Cal 539 (PC).
Necessity for consideration
The plaintiff bank accepted the sum of Rs. 10,00,000 from the defendants towards the full discharge of the suit claim according to second agreement. It was held that having received the said compromise amount, it is not open for the plaintiff to claim the overdue interest to the extent of Rs. 69,571.20 for which there has been no agreement and that under the circumstances the claim, if any made by the plaintiff has been directly hit by section 63 of Contract Act; Central Bank of India v. V. G. Naidu & Sons (Leather) Pvt. Ltd., AIR 1992 Mad 139.
A waiver is nothing unless it amounts to a release. It signifies nothing more than an intention not to insist upon the right; Jagad Bandhu Chatterjee v. Nilima Rani, (1969) 3 SCC 455: (1970) 2 SCR 925: (1971) 1 SCJ 38.
1. But See section 135, infra.
2. See section 41, supra.
3. Subs. by Act 12 of 1891, sec. 2 and Sch. II, Pt. I, for “compensation”.