SC and HC Judgments Online at MyNation

Judgments of Supreme Court of India and High Courts

Santhini vs Vijaya Venketesh on 9 October, 2017





Santhini …Petitioner(s)


Vijaya Venketesh …Respondent(s)




Dipak Misra, CJI. [For himself and Khanwilkar, J.]

A two-Judge Bench in Krishna Veni Nagam v. Harish Nagam1,

while dealing with transfer petition seeking transfer of a case instituted

under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (for brevity, ‘the 1955

Act’) pending on the file of IInd
Signature Not Verified
Presiding Judge, Family Court,
Digitally signed by

Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh to the Family Court, Hyderabad, Andhra
Date: 2017.10.09
16:22:15 IST

Pradesh, took note of the grounds of transfer and keeping in view the
1 (2017) 4 SCC 150
approach of the Court to normally allow the transfer of the proceedings

having regard to the convenience of the wife, felt disturbed expressing

its concern to the difficulties faced by the litigants travelling to this

Court and, accordingly, posed the question whether there was any

possibility to avoid the same. It also took note of the fact that in the

process of hearing of the transfer petition, the matrimonial matters

which are required to be dealt with expeditiously are delayed. That

impelled the Court to pass an order on 09.01.2017 which enumerated

the facts including the plight asserted by the wife, the concept of

territorial jurisdiction under Section 19 of the 1955 Act, and reflected on

the issues whether transfer of a case could be avoided and alternative

mode could be thought of. Dwelling upon the said aspects, the Court


“In these circumstances, we are prima facie of the view that
we need to consider whether we could pass a general order to
the effect that in case where husband files matrimonial
proceedings at place where wife does not reside, the court
concerned should entertain such petition only on the
condition that the husband makes appropriate deposit to
bear the expenses of the wife as may be determined by the
Court. The Court may also pass orders from time to time for
further deposit to ensure that the wife is not handicapped to
defend the proceedings. In other cases, the husband may take
proceedings before the Court in whose jurisdiction the wife
resides which may lessen inconvenience to the parties and
avoid delay. Any other option to remedy the situation can also
be considered.”
As the narration would exposit, the pivotal concern of the Court

was whether an order could be passed so as to provide a better

alternative to each individual who is compelled to move this Court.

2. The observation made in Anindita Das v. Srijit Das2 to the effect

that on an average at least 10 to 15 transfer petitions are on board of

each Court on each admission day was noticed. The learned Judges

apprised themselves about the observations made in Mona Aresh Goel

v. Aresh Satya Goel3, Lalita A. Ranga v. Ajay Champalal Ranga4,

Deepa v. Anil Panicker5, Archana Rastogi v. Rakesh Rastogi6,

Leena Mukherjee v. Rabi Shankar Mukherjee7, Neelam Bhatia v.

Satbir Singh Bhatia8, Soma Choudhury v. Gourab Choudhaury9,

Rajesh Rani v. Tej Pal10, Vandana Sharma v. Rakesh Kumar

Sharma11 and Anju Ohri v. Varinder Ohri12 which rest on the

principle of “expedient for ends of justice” to transfer the proceedings. It

also adverted to Premlata Singh v. Rita Singh13 wherein this Court

2 (2006) 9 SCC 197
3 (2000) 9 SCC 255
4 (2000) 9 SCC 355
5 (2000) 9 SCC 441
6 (2000) 10 SCC 350
7 (2002) 10 SCC 480
8 (2004) 13 SCC 436 : (2006) 1 SCC (Cri) 323
9 (2004) 13 SCC 462 : (2006) 1 SCC (Cri) 341
10 (2007) 15 SCC 597
11 (2008) 11 SCC 768
12 (2007) 15 SCC 556
13 (2005) 12 SCC 277
had not transferred the proceedings but directed the husband to pay for

travelling, lodging and boarding expenses of the wife and/or person

accompanying her for each hearing. The said principle was also followed

in Gana Saraswathi v. H. Raghu Prasad14.

3. The two-Judge Bench, after hearing the learned counsel for the

parties, the learned Additional Solicitor General and the learned Senior

Counsel who was requested to assist the Court, made certain references

to the doctrine of ‘forum non conveniens” and held that it can be applied

to matrimonial proceedings for advancing the interest of justice. The

learned Additional Solicitor General assisting the Court suggested about

conducting the proceedings by videoconferencing. In that context, it has

been held:-

“14. One cannot ignore the problem faced by a husband if proceedings
are transferred on account of genuine difficulties faced by the wife. The
husband may find it difficult to contest proceedings at a place which is
convenient to the wife. Thus, transfer is not always a solution
acceptable to both the parties. It may be appropriate that available
technology of videoconferencing is used where both the parties have
equal difficulty and there is no place which is convenient to both the
parties. We understand that in every district in the country
videoconferencing is now available. In any case, wherever such facility is
available, it ought to be fully utilised and all the High Courts ought to
issue appropriate administrative instructions to regulate the use of
videoconferencing for certain category of cases. Matrimonial cases where
one of the parties resides outside court’s jurisdiction is one of such

14 (2000) 10 SCC 277
categories. Wherever one or both the parties make a request for use of
videoconferencing, proceedings may be conducted on videoconferencing,
obviating the needs of the party to appear in person. In several cases,
this Court has directed recording of evidence by video conferencing 15.

x x x x

16. The advancement of technology ought to be utilised also
for service on parties or receiving communication from the
parties. Every District Court must have at least one e-mail ID.
Administrative instructions for directions can be issued to
permit the litigants to access the court, especially when
litigant is located outside the local jurisdiction of the Court. A
designated officer/manager of a District Court may suitably
respond to such e-mail in the manner permitted as per the
administrative instructions. Similarly, a manager/information
officer in every District Court may be accessible on a notified
telephone during notified hours as per the instructions. These
steps may, to some extent, take care of the problems of the
litigants. These suggestions may need attention of the High
[Emphasis added]

4. After so stating, the two-Judge Bench felt the need to issue

directions which may provide alternative to seeking transfer of

proceedings on account of inability of a party to contest proceedings at a

place away from their ordinary residence which will eventually result in

denial of justice. The safeguards laid down in the said judgment are:-

“(i) Availability of videoconferencing facility.

(ii) Availability of legal aid service.

15 State of Maharashtra v. Praful B. Desai, (2003) 4 SCC 601 : 2003 SCC (Cri) 815; Kalyan Chandra
Sarkar v. Rajesh Ranjan, (2005) 3 SCC 284 : 2005 SCC (Cri) 705; Budhadev Karmaskar (4) v. State of W.B., (2011) 10
SCC 283 : (2012) 1 SCC (Cri) 285; Malthesh Gudda Pooja v. State of Karnataka, (2011) 15 SCC 330 : (2014) 2 SCC (Civ)

(iii) Deposit of cost for travel, lodging and boarding in terms of
Order 25 CPC.

(iv) E-mail address/phone number, if any, at which litigant from
outstation may communicate.”

Be it stated, the Court took note of the spirit behind the orders of

this Court allowing the transfer petitions filed by wives and opined that

the Court almost mechanically allows the petitions so that they are not

denied justice on account of their inability to participate in proceedings

instituted at a different place. It laid stress on financial or physical

hardship. It referred to the authorities in the constitutional scheme that

provide for guaranteeing equal access to justice 16, power of the State to

make special provisions for women and children17, duty to uphold the

dignity of women18 and various steps that have been taken in the said


5. In the said case, the Court transferred the case as prayed for and

further observed that it will be open to the transferee court to conduct

the proceedings or record the evidence of the witnesses who are unable

to appear in court by way of videoconferencing. The aforesaid decision

was brought to the notice of the two-Judge Bench in the instant case by



the learned counsel appearing for the respondent who advanced his

submission that there is no need to transfer the case and the parties

can be directed to avail the facility of videoconferencing. The two-Judge

Bench, after referring to the Statement of Objects and Reasons of the

Family Courts Act, 1984 (for brevity, ‘the 1984 Act’), various provisions

of the said Act, Sections 22, 23 and 26 of the 1955 Act, Rules 2, 3 and

4 of Order XXXIIA which were inserted by the 1976 amendment to the

Code of Civil Procedure (for short, “the CPC”), the concept of

reconciliation, the role of the counsellors in the Family Court and the

principle of confidence and confidentiality, held:-

“19. To what extent the confidence and confidentiality will
be safeguarded and protected in video conferencing,
particularly when efforts are taken by the counsellors,
welfare experts, and for that matter, the court itself for
reconciliation, restitution of conjugal rights or dissolution of
marriage, ascertainment of the wishes of the child in
custody matters, etc., is a serious issue to be considered. It
is certainly difficult in video conferencing, if not impossible,
to maintain confidentiality. It has also to be noted that the
footage in video conferencing becomes part of the record
whereas the reconciliatory efforts taken by the duty-holders
referred to above are not meant to be part of the record. All
that apart, in reconciliatory efforts, physical presence of the
parties would make a significant difference. Having regard
to the very object behind the establishment of Family
Courts Act, 1984, to Order XXXIIA of the Code of Civil
Procedure and to the special provisions introduced in the
Hindu Marriage Act under Sections 22, 23 and 26, we are of
the view that the directions issued by this Court in Krishna
Veni Nagam (supra) need reconsideration on the aspect of
video conferencing in 12 matrimonial disputes.”

Being of this view, it has referred the matter to be considered by a

larger Bench. That is how the matter has been placed before us.

6. We have heard Mr. V.K. Sidharthan, learned counsel for the

petitioner and Mr. Rishi Malhotra, learned counsel for the respondent.

We have also heard Mr. Ajit Kumar Sinha, learned senior counsel who

has been requested to assist the Court.

7. Before we refer to the scheme under the 1984 Act and the 1955

Act, we think it apt to refer to the decisions that have been noted in

Krishna Veni Nagam (supra). In Mona Aresh Goel (supra), the

three-Judge Bench was dealing with the transfer of the matrimonial

proceedings for divorce that was instituted by the husband in Bombay.

The prayer of the wife was to transfer the case from Bombay to Delhi.

The averment was made that the wife had no independent income and

her parents were not in a position to bear the expenses of her travel

from Delhi to Bombay to contest the divorce proceedings. That apart,

various inconveniences were set forth and the husband chose not to

appear in the Transfer Petition. The Court, considering the difficulties

of the wife, transferred the case from Bombay to Delhi. In Lalita A.

Ranga (supra), the Court, taking note of the fact that the husband had
not appeared and further appreciating the facts and circumstances of

the case, thought it appropriate to transfer the petition so that the wife

could contest the proceedings. Be it noted, the wife had a small child

and she was at Jaipur and it was thought that it would be difficult for

her to go to Bombay to contest the proceedings from time to time. In

Deepa’s case, the stand of the wife was that she was unemployed and

had no source of income and, on that basis, the prayer of transfer was

allowed. In Archana Rastogi (supra), the Court entertained the plea of

transfer and held that the prayer for transfer of matrimonial proceedings

taken by the husband in the Court of District Judge, Chandigarh to the

Court of District Judge, Delhi deserved acceptance and, accordingly,

transferred the case. Similarly, in Leena Mukherjee (supra), the prayer

for transfer was allowed. In Neelam Bhatia (supra), the Court declined

to transfer the case and directed the husband to bear the to-and-fro

travelling expenses of the wife and one person accompanying her by

train whenever she actually appeared before the Court. In Soma

Choudhury (supra), taking into consideration the difficulties of the

wife, the proceedings for divorce were transferred from the Court of

District Judge, South Tripura, Udaipur (Tripura) to the Family Court at

Alipore (West Bengal). In Anju Ohri (supra), the Court, on the

foundation of the convenience of the parties and the interest of justice,
allowed the transfer petition preferred by the wife. In Vandana

Sharma (supra), the Court, taking note of the fact that the wife had two

minor daughters and appreciating the difficulty on the said bedrock,

thought it appropriate to transfer the case and, accordingly, so directed.

8. Presently, we think it condign to advert in detail as to what has

been stated in Anindita Das (supra). The stand of the wife in the

transfer petition was that she had a small child of six years and had no

source of income and it was difficult to attend the court at Delhi where

the matrimonial proceedings were pending. The two-Judge Bench

referred to some of the decisions which we have already referred to and

also adverted to Ram Gulam Pandit v. Umesh J. Prasad20 and

Rajwinder Kaur v. Balwinder Singh21 and opined that all the

authorities are based on the facts of the respective cases and they do

not lay down any particular law which operates as a precedent.

Thereafter, it noted that taking advantage of the leniency shown to the

ladies by this Court, number of transfer petitions are filed by women

and, therefore, it is required to consider each petition on merit. Then,

the Court dwelled upon the fact situation and directed that the husband

shall pay all travel and stay expenses to the wife and her companion for


each and every occasion whenever she was required to attend the Court

at Delhi. From the aforesaid decision, it is quite vivid that the Court felt

that the transfer petitions are to be considered on their own merits and

not to be disposed of in a routine manner.

9. Having noted the authorities relating to transfer of matrimonial

disputes, we may refer to Section 25 of the CPC which reads as follows:-

“Section 25. Power of Supreme Court to transfer suits,
etc.- (1) On the application of a party, and after notice to
the parties, and after hearing such of them as desire to be
heard, the Supreme Court may, at any stage, if satisfied
that an order under this section is expedient for the ends of
justice, direct that any suit, appeal or other proceedings be
transferred from a High Court or other Civil Court in one
State to a High Court or other Civil Court in any other

(2) Every application under this section shall be made by
motion which shall be supported by an affidavit.

(3) The court to which such suit, appeal or other
proceeding is transferred shall, subject to any special
directions in the order of transfer, either re-try it or
proceed from the stage at which it was transferred to it.

(4) In dismissing any application under this section, the
Supreme Court may, if it is of opinion that the application
was frivolous or vexatious, order the applicant to pay by
way of compensation to any person who has opposed the
application such sum, not exceeding two thousand rupees,
as it considers appropriate in the circumstances of the

(5) The law applicable to any suit, appeal or other
proceeding transferred under this section shall be the law
which the court in which the suit, appeal or other
proceeding was originally instituted ought to have applied
to such Suit, appeal or proceeding.”

10. Order XLI Rule 2 of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013 which deals

with the application for transfer under Article 139A(2) of the

Constitution and Section 25 of the CPC is as follows:-

“1. Every petition under article 139A(2) of the Constitution
or Section 25 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, shall be
in writing. It shall state succinctly and clearly all relevant
facts and particulars of the case, the name of the High
Court or other Civil Court in which the case is pending and
the grounds on which the transfer is sought. The petition
shall be supported by an affidavit.

2. The petition shall be posted before the Court for
preliminary hearing and orders as to issue of notice. Upon
such hearing the Court, if satisfied that no prima facie case
for transfer has been made out, shall dismiss the petition
and if upon such hearing the Court is satisfied that a
prima facie case for granting the petition is made out, it
shall direct that notice be issued to the parties in the case
concerned to show cause why the case be not transferred.
A copy of the Order shall be transmitted to the High Court

3. The notice shall be served not less than four weeks
before the date fixed for the final hearing of the petition.
Affidavits in opposition shall be filed in the Registry not
later than one week before the date appointed for hearing
and the affidavit in reply shall be filed not later than two
days preceding the day of the hearing of the petition.
Copies of affidavits in opposition and in reply shall be
served on the opposite party or parties and the affidavits
shall not be accepted in the Registry unless they contain
an endorsement of service signed by such party or parties.

4. The petition shall thereafter be listed for final hearing
before the Court.

5. Save as otherwise provided by the rules contained in
this Order the provisions of other orders (including Order
LI) shall, so far as may be, apply to petition under this

The purpose of referring to the same is that this Court has been

conferred with the power by the Constitution under Article 139A(2) to

transfer the cases and has also been conferred statutory jurisdiction to

transfer the cases. The Rules have been framed accordingly. The Court

has the power to allow the petition seeking transfer or to decline the

prayer and indubitably, it is on consideration of the merits of the case

and satisfaction of the Court on that score.

11. Having stated thus, it is necessary to appreciate the legistative

purpose behind the 1984 Act. The Family Courts have been established

for speedy settlement of family disputes. The Statement of Objects and

Reasons reads thus:-

“Statement of Objects and Reasons

Several associations of women, other organizations
and individuals have urged, from time to time, that Family
Courts be set up for the settlement of family disputes,
where emphasis should be laid on conciliation and
achieving socially desirable results and adherence to rigid
rules of procedure and evidence should be eliminated. The
Law Commission in its 59th report (1974) had also stressed
that in dealing with disputes concerning the family the
court ought to adopt an approach radically different from
that adopted in ordinary civil proceedings and that it
should make reasonable efforts at settlement before the
commencement of the trial. The Code of Civil Procedure
was amended in 1976 to provide for a special family.

However, not much use has been made by the courts in
adopting this conciliatory procedure and the courts
continue to deal with family disputes in the same manner
as other civil matters and the same adversary approach
prevails. The need was, therefore, felt, in the public
interest, to establish Family Courts for speedy settlement
of family disputes.

2. The Bill inter alia, seeks to—

(a) provide for establishment of Family Courts by the
State Governments;

(b) make it obligatory on the State Governments to set up
a Family Court in every city or town with a population
exceeding one million;

(c) enable the State Governments to set up, such courts,
in areas other than those specified in (b) above.

(d) exclusively provide within the jurisdiction of the
Family Courts the matters relating to—

(i) matrimonial relief, including nullity of marriage,
judicial separation, divorce, restitution of conjugal rights,
or declaration as to the validity of marriage or as to the
matrimonial status of any person;

(ii) the property of the spouses or of either of them;

(iii) declaration as to the legitimacy of any person;

(iv) guardianship of a person or the custody of any minor;

(v) maintenance, including proceedings under Chapter IX
of the Code of Criminal Procedure;

(e) Make it obligatory on the part of the Family Court to
endeavour, in the first instance to effect a reconciliation or
a settlement between the parties to a family dispute.
During this stage, the proceedings will be informal and
rigid rules of procedure shall not apply;

(f) provide for the association of social welfare agencies,
counselors, etc., during conciliation stage and also to
secure the service of medical and welfare experts;

(g) provide that the parties to a dispute before a Family
Court shall not be entitled, as of right, to be represented by
legal practitioner. However, the court may, in the interest
of justice, seek assistance of a legal expert as amicus

(h) simplify the rules of evidence and procedure so as to
enable a Family Court to deal effectively with a dispute;

(i) provide for only one right of appeal which shall lie to
the High Court.

3. The Bill seeks to achieve the above objects.”

12. The preamble of the 1984 Act provides for the establishment of

Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy

settlement of disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for

matters connected therewith.

13. Presently, we may recapitulate how this Court has dealt with the

duty and responsibility of the Family Court or a Family Court Judge. In

Bhuwan Mohan Singh v. Meena and others 22, the three-Judge Bench

referred to the decision in K.A. Abdul Jaleel v. T.A. Shahida23 and laid

stress on securing speedy settlement of disputes relating to marriage

and family affairs. Emphasizing on the role of the Family Court Judge,

the Court in Bhuwan Mohan Singh (supra) expressed its anguish as

the proceedings before the family court had continued for a considerable

length of time in respect of application filed under Section 125 of the

Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC). The Court observed:-

“It has come to the notice of the Court that on certain
occasions the Family Courts have been granting
adjournments in a routine manner as a consequence of
which both the parties suffer or, on certain occasions, the
wife becomes the worst victim. When such a situation
occurs, the purpose of the law gets totally atrophied. The
Family Judge is expected to be sensitive to the issues, for
he is dealing with extremely delicate and sensitive issues
pertaining to the marriage and issues ancillary thereto.

When we say this, we do not mean that the Family Courts
should show undue haste or impatience, but there is a
distinction between impatience and to be wisely anxious
and conscious about dealing with a situation. A Family
Court Judge should remember that the procrastination is
the greatest assassin of the lis before it. It not only gives
rise to more family problems but also gradually builds
unthinkable and Everestine bitterness. It leads to the cold
refrigeration of the hidden feelings, if still left. The
delineation of the lis by the Family Judge must reveal the
awareness and balance. Dilatory tactics by any of the
parties has to be sternly dealt with, for the Family Court
Judge has to be alive to the fact that the lis before him
pertains to emotional fragmentation and delay can feed it
to grow.”

And again:

“We hope and trust that the Family Court Judges shall
remain alert to this and decide the matters as expeditiously
as possible keeping in view the Objects and Reasons of the
Act and the scheme of various provisions pertaining to
grant of maintenance, divorce, custody of child, property
disputes, etc.”

14. The said passage makes it quite clear that a Family Court Judge

has to be very sensitive to the cause before it and he/she should be

conscious about timely delineation and not procrastinate the matter as

delay has the potentiality to breed bitterness that eventually corrodes

the emotions. The Court has been extremely cautious while stating

about patience as a needed quality for arriving at a settlement and the

need for speedy settlement and, if not possible, proceeding with

meaningful adjudication. There must be efforts for reconciliation, but

the time spent in the said process has to have its own limitation.

15. In Shamima Farooqui v. Shahid Khan24, after referring to the

earlier decisions, especially the above quoted passages, the Court


“When the aforesaid anguish was expressed, the
predicament was not expected to be removed with any kind
of magic. However, the fact remains, these litigations can
really corrode the human relationship not only today but
will also have the impact for years to come and has the
potentiality to take a toll on the society. It occurs either
due to the uncontrolled design of the parties or the
lethargy and apathy shown by the Judges who man the
Family Courts. As far as the first aspect is concerned, it is
the duty of the courts to curtail them. There need not be
hurry but procrastination should not be manifest,
reflecting the attitude of the court. As regards the second
facet, it is the duty of the court to have the complete
control over the proceeding and not permit the lis to swim
the unpredictable grand river of time without knowing
when shall it land on the shores or take shelter in a corner
tree that stands “still” on some unknown bank of the river.
It cannot allow it to sing the song of the brook. “Men may
come and men may go, but I go on forever.” This would be
the greatest tragedy that can happen to the adjudicating
system which is required to deal with most sensitive
matters between the man and wife or other family
members relating to matrimonial and domestic affairs.
There has to be a proactive approach in this regard and the
said approach should be instilled in the Family Court
Judges by the Judicial Academies functioning under the
High Courts. For the present, we say no more.”
[Underlining is ours]

16. The object of stating this is that the legislative intent, the

schematic purpose and the role attributed to the Family Court have to

be perceived with a sense of sanctity. The Family Court Judge should

neither be a slave to the concept of speedy settlement nor should he be

a serf to the proclivity of hurried disposal abandoning the inherent

purity of justice dispensation system. The balanced perception is the

warrant and that is how the scheme of the 1984 Act has to be

understood and appreciated.

17. Let us now proceed to analyse the fundamental intent of the

scheme of the 1984 Act. Section 4 of the 1984 Act deals with the

appointment of the judges. Section 5 provides for association of social

welfare agencies, etc. It engrafts that the State Government may, in

consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association

in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions

as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of institutions or

organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives

thereof; persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the

family; persons working in the field of social welfare; and any other

person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to

exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes

of the 1984 Act. The aforesaid provision, as is evident, conceives

involvement of institutions or organizations engaged in social welfare or

their representatives and professionals engaged in promoting the welfare

of the family for the purpose of effective functioning of the Family Court

to sub-serve the purposes of the Act. Thus, the 1984 Act, to achieve its

purpose, conceives of involvement of certain categories so that, if

required, the Family Court can take their assistance to exercise its

jurisdiction in an effective manner.

18. Section 6 provides for counselors, officers and other employees of

Family Courts. Section 7 deals with the jurisdiction of the Family Court.

The jurisdiction conferred on the Family Court, as we perceive, is quite

extensive. It confers power in a Family Court to exercise jurisdiction

exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under

any law relating to a suit or a proceeding between the parties to a

marriage or a decree of a nullity of marriage declaring the marriage to be

null and void or annulling the marriage, as the case may be, or

restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of

marriage. It has the authority to declare as to the validity of a marriage

so as to annul the matrimonial status of any person and also the power

to entertain a proceeding with respect to the property of the parties to a

marriage or either of them. The Family Court has the jurisdiction to

pass an order or injunction in circumstances arising out of a marital

relationship, declare legitimacy of any person and deal with proceedings

for grant of maintenance, guardianship of the person or the custody of

or access to any minor. That apart, it has also been conferred the

authority to deal with the applications for grant of maintenance for wife

and children and parents as provided under the CrPC.

19. Section 9 prescribes the duty of the Family Court to make efforts

for settlement by rendering assistance and persuading the parties for

arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject matter of the suit or

proceeding. For the said purpose, it may follow the procedure laid down

by the High Court. If in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears

to the Family Court that there is a reasonable opportunity of settlement

between the parties, it may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it

thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement.

20. Section 11 provides for proceedings to be held in camera. The

provision, being significant, is reproduced below:-

“Section 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every
suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings
may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and
shall be so held if either party so desires.”

On a plain reading of the aforesaid provision, it is limpid that if the

Family Court desires, the proceedings should be held in camera and it

shall be so held if either of the parties so desires. A reading of the said

provision, as it seems to us, indicates that, once one party makes a

prayer for holding the proceedings in camera, it is obligatory on the part

of the Family Court to do so.

21. Section 12 stipulates for assistance of medical and welfare experts

for assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by

the Act.

22. At this juncture, it is profitable to refer to certain provisions of the

1955 Act. Section 22 of the said Act provides for proceedings to be in

camera and stipulates that the proceeding may not be printed or

published. Section 23(2) of the 1955 Act enjoins that before proceeding

to grant any relief under this Act, it shall be the duty of the court in the

first instance, in every case where it is possible to do so consistently

with the nature and circumstances of the case, to make every endeavour

to bring about a reconciliation between the parties. The said provision is

not applicable to any proceeding wherein relief is sought on any of the

grounds specified in clause (ii), clause (iii), clause (iv), clause (v), clause

(vi) or clause (vii) of sub-section (1) of Section 13. Sub-section (3) of

Section 23 permits the Court to take aid of a person named by the

parties or of any person nominated by the Court to bring out a

resolution. It enables the Court, if it so thinks, to adjourn the

proceedings for a reasonable period not exceeding fifteen days and refer

the matter to any person named by the parties in this behalf or to any

person nominated by the court if the parties fail to name any person,
with directions to report to the court as to whether reconciliation can be

and has been effected and the court shall, in disposing of the

proceeding, have due regard to the report.

23. It is worthy to note here that the reconciliatory measures are to be

taken at the first instance and emphasis is on efforts for reconciliation

failing which the court should proceed for adjudication and the

command on the Family Court is to hold it in camera if either party so


24. Section 26 of the 1955 Act deals with custody of children. It

empowers the court, from time to time, to pass such interim orders and

make such provisions in the decree as it may deem just and proper with

respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children

consistently with their wishes, wherever possible, and the Government

may, after the decree, upon application by petition for the purpose,

make from time to time, all such orders and provisions with respect to

the custody, maintenance and education of such children as might have

been made by such decree or interim orders in case the proceedings for

obtaining such decree were still pending, and the court may also, from

time to time, revoke, suspend or vary any such orders and provisions

previously made. The proviso appended thereto postulates that the
application with respect to the maintenance and education of the minor

children, pending the proceeding for obtaining such decree, shall, as far

as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of service of

notice on the respondent.

25. It is to be borne in mind that in a matter relating to the custody of

the child, the welfare of the child is paramount and seminal. It is

inconceivable to ignore its importance and treat it as secondary. The

interest of the child in all circumstances remains vital and the Court

has a very affirmative role in that regard. Having regard to the nature of

the interest of the child, the role of the Court is extremely sensitive and

it is expected of the Court to be pro-active and sensibly objective.

26. In Mausami Moitra Ganguli v. Jayant Ganguli25, it has been

held that the principles of law in relation to the custody of a minor child

are well settled. While determining the question as to which parent the

care and control of a child should be committed, the first and the

paramount consideration is the welfare and interest of the child and not

the rights of the parents under a statute. The provisions contained in

the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 and the Hindu Minority and

Guardianship Act, 1956 hold out the welfare of the child as a

predominant consideration because no statute on the subject can

ignore, eschew or obliterate the vital factor of the welfare of the minor.

27. In the said case, a passage from Halsbury’s Laws of England (4 th

Edn., Vol. 13) was reproduced which reads thus:-

“809. Principles as to custody and upbringing of minors.—
Where in any proceedings before any court, the custody or
upbringing of a minor is in question, the court, in deciding
that question, must regard the welfare of the minor as the
first and paramount consideration, and must not take into
consideration whether from any other point of view the claim
of the father in respect of such custody or upbringing is
superior to that of the mother, or the claim of the mother is
superior to that of the father. In relation to the custody or
upbringing of a minor, a mother has the same rights and
authority as the law allows to a father, and the rights and
authority of mother and father are equal and are exercisable
by either without the other.”

28. In Rosy Jacob v. Jacob A. Chakramakkal26, the Court ruled that

the children are not mere chattels, nor are they mere playthings for their

parents. Absolute right of parents over the destinies and the lives of

their children has, in the modern changed social conditions, yielded to

the considerations of their welfare as human beings so that they may

grow up in a normal balanced manner to be useful members of the

society and the guardian court in case of a dispute between the mother

and the father is expected to strike a just and proper balance between

the requirements of welfare of the minor children and the rights of their

respective parents over them.

29. In Vikram Vir Vohra v. Shalini Bhalla27, the Court took note of

the fact that the learned Judge of the High Court had personally

interviewed the child who was seven years old to ascertain his wishes.

The two Judges of this Court also interacted with the child in the

chambers in the absence of his parents to find out about his wish and

took note of the fact that the child was aged about 10 years and was at

an informative and impressionable stage and eventually opined that the

order passed by the High Court affirming the order of the trial Court

pertaining to visitation rights of the father had been so structured that it

was compatible with the educational career of the child and the rights of

the father and the mother had been well balanced. It is common

knowledge that in most of the cases relating to guardianship and

custody, the Courts interact with the child to know her/his desire

keeping in view the concept that the welfare of the child is paramount.

30. It is essential to reflect on the reasoning ascribed in Krishna Veni

Nagam (supra). As we understand, the two-Judge Bench has taken

into consideration the number of cases filed before this Court and the

different approaches adopted by this Court, the facet of territorial

jurisdiction, doctrine of forum non-conveniens which can be applicable

to matrimonial proceedings for advancing the interest of justice, the

problems faced by the husband, the recourse taken by this Court to

videoconferencing in certain cases and on certain occasions, the

advancement of technology, the role of the High Courts to issue

appropriate administrative instructions to regulate the use of

videoconferencing for certain categories of cases and ruled that the

matrimonial cases where one of the parties resides outside the court’s

jurisdiction do fall in one of such categories.

31. Before we proceed to analyse further, we would like to cogitate on

the principles applied in the decisions rendered in the context of

videoconferencing. In State of Maharashtra v. Dr. Praful B. Desai 28,

the proceedings related to recording of evidence where the witness was

in a foreign country. In Kalyan Chandra Sarkar v. Rajesh Ranjan

alias Pappu Yadav Anr.29, the controversy pertained to a criminal

trial under Section 302 IPC wherein the Court, in exercise of power

under Article 142 of the Constitution, directed shifting of the accused

from a jail in Patna to Tihar Jail at Delhi. In that context, the Court


permitted conducting of the trial with the aid of videoconferencing. In

Budhadev Karmaskar (4) v. State of West Bengal30, the issue of

videoconferencing had arisen as the lis related to rehabilitation of sex

workers keeping in view the interpretation of this Court of ‘life’ to mean

life of dignity.

32. In Malthesh Gudda Pooja v. State of Karnataka Ors.31, the

question that fell for consideration was whether a Division Bench of the

High Court, while considering a memo for listing an appeal restored for

fresh hearing, on grant of application for review by a co-ordinate Bench,

could refuse to act upon the order of review on the ground that the said

order made by a Bench different from the Bench which passed the

original order granting review is a nullity. We need not dilate upon what

ultimately the Court said. What is necessary to observe is what

arrangement should be made in case of a High Court where there are

Principal Seat and Circuit Benches and Judges move from one Bench to

another for some time and decide the matters and review is filed. In

that context, the Court opined:-

“… when two Judges heard the matter at a Circuit Bench, the
chances of both Judges sitting again at that place at the same
time, may not arise. But the question is in considering the


applications for review, whether the wholesome principle
behind Order 47 Rule 5 of the Code and Chapter 3 Rule 5 of
the High Court Rules providing that the same Judges should
hear it, should be dispensed with merely because of the fact
that the Judges in question, though continue to be attached
to the Court are sitting at the main Bench, or temporarily at
another Bench. In the interests of justice, in the interests of
consistency in judicial pronouncements and maintaining the
good judicial traditions, an effort should always be made for
the review application to be heard by the same Judges, if they
are in the same Court. Any attempt to too readily provide for
review applications to be heard by any available Judge or
Judges should be discouraged.”

And further:-

“With the technological innovations available now, we do not
see why the review petitions should not be heard by using the
medium of video conferencing.”

33. The aforesaid pronouncements, as we find, are absolutely different

from a controversy which is involved in matrimonial proceedings which

relate to various aspects, namely, declaration of marriage as a nullity,

dissolution of marriage, restitution of marriage, custody of children,

guardianship, maintenance, adjudication of claim of stridhan, etc. The

decisions that have been rendered cannot be regarded as precedents for

the proposition that videoconferencing can be one of the modes to

regulate matrimonial proceedings.

34. The two-Judge Bench has also noted the constitutional scheme

that provides for guaranteeing equal access to justice and the power of
the State to make special provisions for women and children as

enshrined under Article 15(3) of the Constitution and the duty to uphold

the dignity of women and the various steps taken in the said direction.

The Court has also referred to Articles 243-D and 243-T of the

Constitution under which provisions have been made for reservation for

women in Panchayats and Municipalities by the 1973 and 1974

amendments. It has also taken note of the Convention on the

Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

that underlines the awareness of the international commitments on the

subject. There is also reference to various authorities of the Court that

have referred to the international conventions and affirmative facet

enshrined under Article 15(3) of the Constitution. We must immediately

clarify that these provisions of the Articles of the Constitution and the

decisions find place in the footnote of the judgment to highlight the

factum that various steps have been taken to uphold the dignity of


35. The two-Judge Bench has referred to certain judgments to

highlight the affirmative rights conferred on women under the

Constitution. We shall refer to them and explain how they are rendered

in a different context and how conducting of matrimonial disputes
through videoconferencing would scuttle the rights of women and not

expand the rights. In Mackinnon Mackenzie Co. Ltd v. Audrey

D’costa and another32, the Court dealt with the principle of

applicability of equal pay for equal work to lady stenographers in the

same manner as male stenographers. A contention was advanced by

the employer that this discrimination between the two categories had

been brought out not merely on the ground of sex but the Court found it

difficult to agree with the contention and referred to various aspects

and, eventually, did not interfere with the judgment of the High Court

that had granted equal remuneration to both male and female

stenographers. In Vishaka and others v. State of Rajasthan and

others33, the three-Judge Bench, taking note of Articles 14, 15, 19(1)(g),

21 and 51-A and further highlighting the concept of gender equality and

the recommendations of CEDAW and the absence of domestic law, laid

down guidelines and norms for observation at work places and other

institutions for the purpose of effective enforcement of the basic human

right of gender equality and sexual harassment and abuse, more

particularly, sexual harassment at work places.



36. In Arun Kumar Agrawal and another v. National Insurance

Company Limited and others34, the lis arose pertaining to the criteria

for determination of compensation payable to the dependants of a

woman who died in a road accident and who did not have regular source

of income. Singhvi, J. opined that it is highly unfair, unjust and

inappropriate to compute the compensation payable to the dependants

of a deceased wife/mother who does not have a regular income by

comparing her services with that of a housekeeper or a servant or an

employee who works for a fixed period. The gratuitous services rendered

by the wife/mother to the husband and children cannot be equated with

the services of an employee and no evidence or data can possibly be

produced for estimating the value of such services. Ganguly, J., in his

concurring opinion, said that women make a significant contribution at

various levels. He referred to numerous authorities and ruled:-

“63. Household work performed by women throughout
India is more than US $612.8 billion per year (Evangelical
Social Action Forum and Health Bridge, p. 17). We often
forget that the time spent by women in doing household
work as homemakers is the time which they can devote to
paid work or to their education. This lack of sensitiveness
and recognition of their work mainly contributes to
women’s high rate of poverty and their consequential
oppression in society, as well as various physical, social
and psychological problems. The courts and tribunals
should do well to factor these considerations in assessing

compensation for housewives who are victims of road
accidents and quantifying the amount in the name of fixing
“just compensation”.

64. In this context the Australian Family Property Law has
adopted a very gender sensitive approach. It provides that
while distributing properties in matrimonial matters, for
instance, one has to factor in “the contribution made by a
party to the marriage to the welfare of the family
constituted by the parties to the marriage and any children
of the marriage, including any contribution made in the
capacity of a homemaker or parent.”

37. In Voluntary Health Association of Punjab v. Union of India

and others35, the two-Judge Bench which was dealing with the sharp

decline in female sex ratio and mushrooming of various sonography

centers, issued certain directions keeping in view the provisions of the

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and the Pre-Conception

and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection)

Rules, 1996. The concurring opinion adverted to the direction

contained in point 9.8 of the main judgment which related to the steps

taken by the State Government and the Union Territory to educate the

people of the necessity of implementing the provisions of the said Act by

conducting workshops as well as awareness camps at the State and

district levels. In the concurring opinion, reference was made to the

authority in State of H.P. v. Nikku Ram36 and M.C. Mehta v. State of

T.N.37 and it was stated:-

“A woman has to be regarded as an equal partner in the life
of a man. It has to be borne in mind that she has also the
equal role in the society i.e. thinking, participating and
leadership. The legislature has brought the present piece of
legislation with an intention to provide for prohibition of
sex selection before or after conception and for regulation
of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purposes of
detecting genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders or
chromosomal abnormalities or certain congenital
malformations or sex-linked disorders and for the
prevention of their misuse for sex determination leading to
female foeticide. The purpose of the enactment can only be
actualised and its object fruitfully realised when the
authorities under the Act carry out their functions with
devotion, dedication and commitment and further there is
awakened awareness with regard to the role of women in a

38. In Charu Khurana and others v. Union of India and others38,

the controversy arose about the prevalence of discrimination of gender

equality in the film industry where women were not allowed to become

make-up artists and only allowed to work as hair-dressers. Referring to

various earlier judgments and Article 51-A(e), the Court observed:-

“On a condign understanding of clause (e), it is clear as a
cloudless sky that all practices derogatory to the dignity of
women are to be renounced. Be it stated, dignity is the
quintessential quality of a personality and a human frame



always desires to live in the mansion of dignity, for it is a
highly cherished value.”

And again:

“…The sustenance of gender justice is the cultivated
achievement of intrinsic human rights. Equality cannot be
achieved unless there are equal opportunities and if a
woman is debarred at the threshold to enter into the
sphere of profession for which she is eligible and qualified,
it is well-nigh impossible to conceive of equality. It also
clips her capacity to earn her livelihood which affects her
individual dignity.”

39. Eventually, directions were issued that women were eligible to

become make-up artists. The aforesaid decisions unequivocally lay

stress and emphasis on gender equality and dignity of women.

40. In Voluntary Health Association of Punjab v. Union of India

and Ors39, while dealing with female foeticide, it has been observed:-

“It needs no special emphasis that a female child is entitled
to enjoy equal right that a male child is allowed to have.
The constitutional identity of a female child cannot be
mortgaged to any kind of social or other concept that has
developed or is thought of. It does not allow any room for
any kind of compromise. It only permits affirmative steps
that are constitutionally postulated. Be it clearly stated
that when rights are conferred by the Constitution, it has
to be understood that such rights are recognised regard
being had to their naturalness and universalism. No one,
let it be repeated, no one, endows any right to a female
child or, for that matter, to a woman. The question of any
kind of condescension or patronisation does not arise.”


41. Emphasizing on the equality and dignity of women, it has been


“… let it be stated with certitude and without allowing any
room for any kind of equivocation or ambiguity, the
perception of any individual or group or organisation or
system treating a woman with inequity, indignity,
inequality or any kind of discrimination is constitutionally
impermissible. The historical perception has to be given a
prompt burial. Female foeticide is conceived by the society
that definitely includes the parents because of unethical
perception of life and nonchalant attitude towards law. The
society that treats man and woman with equal dignity
shows the reflections of a progressive and civilised society.
To think that a woman should think what a man or a
society wants her to think tantamounts to slaughtering her
choice, and definitely a humiliating act. When freedom of
free choice is allowed within constitutional and statutory
parameters, others cannot determine the norms as that
would amount to acting in derogation of law.”

42. In Vikas Yadav v. State of Uttar Pradesh and others40,

condemning honour killing, the Court after referring to Lata Singh v.

State of U.P.41 and Maya Kaur Baldevsingh Sardar v. State of

Maharashtra42, has opined:-

“One may feel “My honour is my life” but that does not
mean sustaining one’s honour at the cost of another.

Freedom, independence, constitutional identity, individual
choice and thought of a woman, be a wife or sister or


daughter or mother, cannot be allowed to be curtailed
definitely not by application of physical force or threat or
mental cruelty in the name of his self-assumed honour.
That apart, neither the family members nor the members of
the collective has any right to assault the boy chosen by
the girl. Her individual choice is her self-respect and
creating dent in it is destroying her honour. And to impose
so-called brotherly or fatherly honour or class honour by
eliminating her choice is a crime of extreme brutality, more
so, when it is done under a guise. It is a vice, condemnable
and deplorable perception of “honour”, comparable to
medieval obsessive assertions.”

43. The aforesaid enunciation of law makes it graphically clear that the

“constitutional identity”, “freedom of choice”, “dignity of a woman” and

“affirmative rights conferred on her by the Constitution” cannot be

allowed to be abrogated even for a moment. In this context, we have to

scan and appreciate the provision contained in Section 11 of the 1984

Act. The provision, as has been stated earlier, mandates the proceedings

to be held in camera if one of the parties so desires. Equality of choice

has been conferred by the statute. That apart, Section 22 of the 1955

Act lays down the proceedings to be held in camera and any matter in

relation to any such proceeding may not be printed or published except

a judgment of the High Court or of the Supreme Court with the previous

permission of the Court.

44. We, as advised at present, constrict our analysis to the provisions

of the 1984 Act. First, as we notice, the expression of desire by the wife
or the husband is whittled down and smothered if the Court directs that

the proceedings shall be conducted through the use of

videoconferencing. As is demonstrable from the analysis of paragraph

14 of the decision, the Court observed that wherever one or both the

parties make a request for the use of videoconferencing, the proceedings

may be conducted by way of videoconferencing obviating the need of the

parties to appear in person. The cases where videoconferencing has

been directed by this Court are distinguishable. They are either in

criminal cases or where the Court found it necessary that the witness

should be examined through videoconferencing. In a case where the

wife does not give consent for videoconferencing, it would be contrary to

Section 11 of the 1984 Act. To say that if one party makes the request,

the proceedings may be conducted by videoconferencing mode or system

would be contrary to the language employed under Section 11 of the

1984 Act. The said provision, as is evincible to us, is in consonance with

the constitutional provision which confer affirmative rights on women

that cannot be negatived by the Court. The Family Court also has the

jurisdiction to direct that the proceedings shall be held in camera if it so

desires and, needless to say, the desire has to be expressed keeping in

view the provisions of the 1984 Act.

45. The language employed in Section 11 of the 1984 Act is absolutely

clear. It provides that if one of the parties desires that the proceedings

should be held in camera, the Family Court has no option but to so

direct. This Court, in exercise of its jurisdiction, cannot take away such

a sanctified right that law recognizes either for the wife or the husband.

That apart, the Family Court has the duty to make efforts for

settlement. Section 23(2) of the 1955 Act mandates for reconciliation.

The language used under Section 23(2) makes it an obligatory duty on

the part of the court at the first instance in every case where it is

possible, to make every endeavour to bring about reconciliation between

the parties where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and

circumstances of the case. There are certain exceptions as has been

enumerated in the proviso which pertain to incurably of unsound mind

or suffering from a virulent and incurable form of leprosy or suffering

from venereal disease in a communicable form or has renounced the

world by entering any religious order or has not been heard of as being

alive for a period of seven years, etc. These are the exceptions carved

out by the legislature. The Court has to play a diligent and effective role

in this regard.

46. The reconciliation requires presence of both the parties at the same

place and the same time so as to be effectively conducted. The spatial

distance will distant the possibility of reconciliation because the Family

Court Judge would not be in a position to interact with the parties in

the manner as the law commands. By virtue of the nature of the

controversy, it has its inherent sensitivity. The Judge is expected to deal

with care, caution and with immense sense of worldly experience

absolutely being conscious of social sensibility. Needless to emphasise,

this commands a sense of trust and maintaining an atmosphere of

confidence and also requirement of assurance that the confidentiality is

in no way averted or done away with. There can be no denial of this

fact. It is sanguinely private. Recently, in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy

(Retd) v. Union of India others 43, this Court, speaking through one

of us (Chandrachud, J.), has ruled thus:-

“The intersection between one’s mental integrity and
privacy entitles the individual freedom of thought, the
freedom to believe in what is right, and the freedom of
self-determination. When these guarantees intersect with
gender, they create a private space which protects all those
elements which are crucial to gender identity. The family,
marriage, procreation and sexual orientation are all
integral to the dignity of the individual.”

And again:


“Privacy represents the core of the human personality and
recognizes the ability of each individual to make choices
and to take decisions governing matters intimate and

47. Frankfurter Felix in Schulte Co. v. Gangi44, has stated that the

policy of a statute should be drawn out of its terms as nourished by

their proper environment and not like nitrogen out of the air. Benjamin

N. Cardozo, in Hopkins Savings Assn. v. Cleary45, has opined that

when a statute is reasonably susceptible of two interpretations, the

Court has to prefer the meaning that preserves to the meaning that


48. The command under Section 11 of the 1984 Act confers a right on

both the parties. It is statutory in nature. The Family Court Judge who

is expected to be absolutely sensitive has to take stock of the situation

and can suo motu hold the proceedings in camera. The Family Court

Judge is only meant to deal with the controversies and disputes as

provided under the 1984 Act. He is not to be given any other

assignment by the High Court. The in camera proceedings stand in

contradistinction to a proceeding which is tried in court. When a case is

tried or heard in court, there is absolute transparency. Having regard to

the nature of the controversy and the sensitivity of the matter, it is

desirable to hear in court various types of issues that crop up in these

types of litigations. The Act commands that there has to be an effort for

settlement. The legislative intendment is for speedy settlement. The

counsellors can be assigned the responsibility by the court to counsel

the parties. That is the schematic purpose of the law. The

confidentiality of the proceedings is imperative for these proceedings.

49. The procedure of videoconferencing which is to be adopted when

one party gives consent is contrary to Section 11 of the 1984 Act. There

is no provision that the matter can be dealt with by the Family Court

Judge by taking recourse to videoconferencing. When a matter is not

transferred and settlement proceedings take place which is in the nature

of reconciliation, it will be well nigh impossible to bridge the gap. What

one party can communicate with other, if they are left alone for

sometime, is not possible in videoconferencing and if possible, it is very

doubtful whether the emotional bond can be established in a virtual

meeting during videoconferencing. Videoconferencing may create a dent

in the process of settlement.

50. The two-Judge Bench had referred to the decisions where the

affirmative rights meant for women have been highlighted in various

judgments. We have adverted to some of them to show the dignity of
woman and her rights and the sanctity of her choice. When most of the

time, a case is filed for transfer relating to matrimonial disputes

governed by the 1984 Act, the statutory right of a woman cannot be

nullified by taking route to technological advancement and destroying

her right under a law, more so, when it relates to family matters. In our

considered opinion, dignity of women is sustained and put on a higher

pedestal if her choice is respected. That will be in consonance with

Article 15(3) of the Constitution.

51. In this context, we may refer to the fundamental principle of

necessity of doing justice and trial in camera. The nine-Judge Bench in

Naresh Shridhar Mirajkar and Ors v. State of Maharashtra and

Anr.46, after enunciating the universally accepted proposition in favour

of open trials, expressed:-

“While emphasising the importance of public trial, we
cannot overlook the fact that the primary function of the
Judiciary is to do justice between the parties who bring
their causes before it. If a Judge trying a cause is satisfied
that the very purpose of finding truth in the case would be
retarded, or even defeated if witnesses are required to give
evidence subject to public gaze, is it or is it not open to him
in exercise of his inherent power to hold the trial in camera
either partly or fully? If the primary function of the court is
to do justice in causes brought before it, then on principle,
it is difficult to accede to the proposition that there can be
no exception to the rule that all causes must be tried in

open court. If the principle that all trials before courts
must be held in public was treated as inflexible and
universal and it is held that it admits of no exceptions
whatever, cases may arise where by following the principle,
justice itself may be defeated. That is why we feel no
hesitation in holding that the High Court has inherent
jurisdiction to hold a trial in camera if the ends of justice
clearly and necessarily require the adoption of such a
course. It is hardly necessary to emphasise that this
inherent power must be exercised with great caution and it
is only if the court is satisfied beyond a doubt that the
ends of justice themselves would be defeated if a case is
tried in open court that it can pass an order to hold the
trial in camera; but to deny the existence of such inherent
power to the court would be to ignore the primary object of
adjudication itself. The principle underlying the insistence
on hearing causes in open court is to protect and assist
fair, impartial and objective administration of justice; but if
the requirement of justice itself sometimes dictates the
necessity of trying the case in camera, it cannot be said
that the said requirement should be sacrificed because of
the principle that every trial must be held in open court.”

52. The principle of exception that the larger Bench enunciated is

founded on the centripodal necessity of doing justice to the cause and

not to defeat it. In matrimonial disputes that are covered under Section

7 of the 1984 Act where the Family Court exercises its jurisdiction, there

is a statutory protection to both the parties and conferment of power on

the court with a duty to persuade the parties to reconcile. If the

proceedings are directed to be conducted through videoconferencing, the

command of the Section as well as the spirit of the 1984 Act will be in

peril and further the cause of justice would be defeated.

53. A cogent reflection is also needed as regards the perception when

both the parties concur to have the proceedings to be held through

videoconferencing. In this context, the thought and the perception are to

be viewed through the lens of the textual context, legislative intent and

schematic canvas. The principle may had to be tested on the bedrock

that courts must have progressive outlook and broader interpretation

with the existing employed language in the statute so as to expand the

horizon and the connotative expanse and not adopt a pedantic


54. We have already discussed at length with regard to the complexity

and the sensitive nature of the controversies. The statement of law

made in Krishna Veni Nagam (supra) that if either of the parties gives

consent, the case can be transferred, is absolutely unacceptable.

However, an exception can be carved out to the same. We may repeat at

the cost of repetition that though the principle does not flow from

statutory silence, yet as we find from the scheme of the Act, the Family

Court has been given ample power to modulate its procedure. The

Evidence Act is not strictly applicable. Affidavits of formal witnesses are

acceptable. It will be permissible for the other party to cross-examine

the deponent. We are absolutely conscious that the enactment gives
emphasis on speedy settlement. As has been held in Bhuwan Mohan

Singh (supra), the concept of speedy settlement does not allow room for

lingering the proceedings. A genuine endeavour has to be made by the

Family Court Judge, but in the name of efforts to bring in a settlement

or to arrive at a solution of the lis, the Family Court should not be

chained by the tentacles by either parties. Perhaps, one of the parties

may be interested in procrastinating the litigation. Therefore, we are

disposed to think that once a settlement fails and if both the parties give

consent that a witness can be examined in video conferencing, that can

be allowed. That apart, when they give consent that it is necessary in a

specific factual matrix having regard to the convenience of the parties,

the Family Court may allow the prayer for videoconferencing. That

much of discretion, we are inclined to think can be conferred on the

Family Court. Such a limited discretion will not run counter to the

legislative intention that permeates the 1984 Act. However, we would

like to add a safeguard. A joint application should be filed before the

Family Court Judge, who shall take a decision. However, we make it

clear that in a transfer petition, no direction can be issued for video

conferencing. We reiterate that the discretion has to rest with the

Family Court to be exercised after the court arrives at a definite

conclusion that the settlement is not possible and both parties file a
joint application or each party filing his/her consent memorandum

seeking hearing by videoconferencing.

55. Be it noted, sometimes, transfer petitions are filed seeking transfer

of cases instituted under the Protection of Women from Domestic

Violence Act, 2005 and cases registered under the IPC. As the cases

under the said Act and the IPC have not been adverted to in Krishna

Veni Nagam (supra) or in the order of reference in these cases, we do

intend to advert to the same.

56. In view of the aforesaid analysis, we sum up our conclusion as

follows :-

(i) In view of the scheme of the 1984 Act and in particular Section 11,

the hearing of matrimonial disputes may have to be conducted in


(ii) After the settlement fails and when a joint application is filed or

both the parties file their respective consent memorandum for

hearing of the case through videoconferencing before the

concerned Family Court, it may exercise the discretion to allow the

said prayer.

(iii) After the settlement fails, if the Family Court feels it appropriate

having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case that

videoconferencing will sub-serve the cause of justice, it may so


(iv) In a transfer petition, video conferencing cannot be directed.

(v) Our directions shall apply prospectively.

(vi) The decision in Krishna Veni Nagam (supra) is overruled to the

aforesaid extent

57. We place on record our appreciation for the assistance rendered by

Mr. Ajit Kumar Sinha, learned senior counsel.

58. The matters be placed before the appropriate Bench for

consideration of the transfer petitions on their own merits.


(Dipak Misra)


(A.M. Khanwilkar)

New Delhi.

October 9, 2017.








WITH T.P. (C ) NO.422 OF 2017



I The judgment proposed by the learned Chief Justice has

been circulated and deliberated upon. The reasons why I am

unable to adopt the view propounded in the judgment of the

learned Chief Justice will be delivered separately. I record

below my conclusions:

1. The Family Courts Act, 1984 has been enacted at a point

in time when modern technology ( at least as we know it

today ) which enables persons separated by spatial

distances to communicate with each other face to face

was not the order of the day or, in any case, was not as

fully developed. That is no reason for any court –

especially for this court which sets precedent for the

nation – to exclude the application of technology to

facilitate the judicial process.

2. Appropriate deployment of technology facilitates access to

justice. Litigation under the Family Courts Act 1984 is

not an exception to this principle. This court must be

averse to judicially laying down a restraint on such use of

technology which facilitates access to justice to persons

in conflict, including those involved in conflicts within

the family. Modern technology is above all a facilitator,

enabler and leveler.


3. Video conferencing is a technology which allows users in

different locations to hold face to face meetings. Video

conferencing is being used extensively the world over

(India being no exception) in on line teaching,

administration, meetings, negotiation, mediation and

telemedicine among a myriad other uses. Video

conferencing reduces cost, time, carbon footprint and the


4. An in-camera trial is contemplated under Section 11 in

two situations: the first where the Family Court so

desires; and the second if either of the parties so desires.

There is a fallacy in the hypothesis that an in-camera

trial is inconsistent with the usage of video conferencing

techniques. A trial in-camera postulates the exclusion of

the public from the courtroom and allows for restraints

on public reporting. Video conferencing does not have to

be recorded nor is it accessible to the press or the public.

The proper adoption of video conferencing does not

negate the postulates of an in-camera trial even if such a

trial is required by the court or by one of the parties

under Section 11.

5. The Family Courts Act 1984 envisages an active role for

the Family Court to foster settlements. Under the

provisions of Section 11, the Family Court has to

endeavour to “assist and persuade” parties to arrive at a

settlement. Section 9 clearly recognises a discretion in

the Family Court to determine how to structure the

process. It does so by adopting the words “where it is

possible to do so consistent with the nature and

circumstances of the case”. Moreover, the High Courts

can frame rules under Section 9(1) and the Family Court

may, subject to those rules, “follow such procedure as it

deems fit”. In the process of settlement, Section 10(3)

enables the Family Court to lay down its own procedure.

The Family Court is entitled to take the benefit of

counsellors, medical experts and persons professionally

engaged in promoting the welfare of the family.

6. The above provisions – far from excluding the use of video

conferencing – are sufficiently enabling to allow the

Family Court to utilise technological advances to

facilitate the purpose of achieving justice in resolving

family conflicts. There may arise a variety of situations

where in today’s age and time parties are unable to come

face to face for counselling or can do so only at such

expense, delay or hardship which will defeat justice. One

or both spouses may face genuine difficulties arising from

the compulsions of employment, family circumstances

(including the needs of young children), disability and

social or economic handicaps in accessing a court

situated in a location distant from where either or both

parties reside or work. It would be inappropriate to

deprive the Family Court which is vested with such wide

powers and procedural flexibility to adopt video

conferencing as a facilitative tool, where it is convenient

and readily available. Whether video conferencing should

be allowed must be determined on a case to case analysis

to best effectuate the concern of providing just solutions.

Far from such a procedure being excluded by the law, it

will sub serve the purpose of the law.

7. Conceivably there may be situations where parties (or

one of the spouses) do not want to be in the same room

as the other. This is especially true when there are

serious allegations of marital abuse. Video conferencing

allows things to be resolved from the safety of a place

which is not accessible to the other spouse against whom

there is a serious allegation of misbehaviour of a

psychiatric nature or in a case of substance abuse.

8. Video conferencing is gender neutral. In fact it ensures

that one of the spouses cannot procrastinate and delay

the conclusion of the trial. Delay, it must be remembered,

generally defeats the cause of a party which is not the

dominant partner in a relationship. Asymmetries

of power have a profound consequence in marital ties.

Imposing an unwavering requirement of personal and

physical presence (and exclusion of facilitative

technological tools such as video conferencing) will result

in a denial of justice.

9. The High Courts have allowed for video conferencing in

resolving family conflicts. A body of precedent has grown

around the subject in the Indian context. The judges of

the High Court should have a keen sense of awareness of

prevailing social reality in their states and of the federal

structure. Video conferencing has been adopted

internationally in resolving conflicts within the family.

There is a robust body of authoritative opinion on the

subject which supports video conferencing, of course

with adequate safeguards. Whether video conferencing

should be allowed in a particular family dispute before

the Family Court, the stage at which it should be allowed

and the safeguards which should be followed should best

be left to the High Courts while framing rules on the

subject. Subject to such rules, the use of video

conferencing must be left to the careful exercise of

discretion of the Family Court in each case.


10. The proposition that video conferencing can be permitted

only after the conclusion of settlement proceedings

(resultantly excluding it in the settlement process), and

thereafter only when both parties agree to it does not

accord either with the purpose or the provisions of the

Family Courts Act 1984. Exclusion of video conferencing

in the settlement process is not mandated either

expressly or by necessary implication by the legislation.

On the contrary the legislation has enabling provisions

which are sufficiently broad to allow video conferencing.

Confining it to the stage after the settlement process and

in a situation where both parties have agreed will

seriously impede access to justice. It will render the

Family Court helpless to deal with human situations

which merit flexible solutions. Worse still, it will enable

one spouse to cause interminable delays thereby

defeating the purpose for which a specialised court has

been set up.


II The reference should in my opinion be answered in the

above terms.


New Delhi
October 09, 2017

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Not found ...? HOW TO WIN 498a, DV, DIVORCE; Search in Above link
MyNation Times Magzine

All Law documents and Judgment copies
Laws and Bare Acts of India
Landmark SC/HC Judgements
Rules and Regulations of India.

Recent Comments


Copyright © 2024 SC and HC Judgments Online at MyNation

Free Legal Help, Just WhatsApp Away

MyNation HELP line

We are Not Lawyers, but No Lawyer will give you Advice like We do

Please read Group Rules – CLICK HERE, If You agree then Please Register CLICK HERE and after registration  JOIN WELCOME GROUP HERE

We handle Women Centric biased laws like False Sectioin 498A IPC, Domestic Violence(DV ACT), Divorce, Maintenance, Alimony, Child Custody, HMA 24, 125 CrPc, 307, 312, 313, 323, 354, 376, 377, 406, 420, 497, 506, 509; TEP, RTI and many more…

MyNation FoundationMyNation FoundationMyNation Foundation