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Section 32 – Income Tax Act, 1961

Income Tax Act, 1961

 

Section 32. DEPRECIATION.

 

(1) In respect of depreciation of – (i) Buildings, machinery, plant or furniture, being tangible assets;

 

(ii) Know-how, patents, copyrights, trade marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, being intangible assets acquired on or after the 1st day of April, 1998, owned, wholly or partly, by the assessee and used for the purposes of the business or profession, the following deductions shall be allowed – (i) In the case of assets of an undertaking engaged in generation or generation and distribution of power, such percentage on the actual cost thereof to the assessee as may be prescribed;

 

(ii) In the case of any block of assets, such percentage on the written down value thereof as may be prescribed 440 439 ]:

 

Provided that no deduction shall be allowed under this clause in respect of – (a) Any motor car manufactured outside India, where such motor car is acquired by the assessee after the 28th day of February, 1975, unless it is used – (i) In a business of running it on hire for tourists; or 

 

(ii) Outside India in his business or profession in another country; and

(b) Any machinery or plant if the actual cost thereof is allowed as a deduction in one or more years under an agreement entered into by the Central Government under section 42 : 443 ]

 

Provided further that where an asset referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii), as the case may be, is acquired by the assessee during the previous year and is put to use for the purposes of business or profession for a period of less than one hundred and eighty days in that previous year, the deduction under this sub-section in respect of such asset shall be restricted to fifty per cent of the amount calculated at the percentage prescribed for an asset under clause (i) or clause (ii), as the case may be : 

 

Provided also that where an asset being commercial vehicle is acquired by the assessee on or after the 1st day of October, 1998 but before the 1st day of April, 1999 and is put to use before the 1st day of April, 1999 for the purposes of business or profession, the deduction in respect of such asses shall be allowed on such percentage on the written down value thereof as may be prescribed. 

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this proviso, – (a) The expression “commercial vehicle” means “heavy goods vehicle”, “heavy passenger motor vehicle”, “light motor vehicle”, “medium goods vehicle” and “medium passenger motor vehicle” but does not include “maxi-cab”, “motor-cab”, “tractor” and “road-roller”;

 

(b) The expression “heavy goods vehicle”, “heavy passenger motor vehicle”, “light motor vehicle”, “medium goods vehicle”, “medium passenger motor vehicle”, “maxi-cab”, “motor-cab”, “tractor” and “road roller” shall have the meanings respectively as assigned to them in section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988). 

 

Provided also that, in respect of the previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1991 the deduction in relation to any block of assets under this clause shall, in the case of a company, be restricted to seventy-five per cent of the amount calculated at the percentage, on the written down value of such assets, prescribed under this Act immediately before the commencement of the Taxation Laws (Amendment) Act, 1991.

 

Provided also that the aggregate deduction, in respect of depreciation of buildings, machinery, plant or furniture, being tangible assets or know-how, patents, copyrights, trademarks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature, being intangible assets allowable to the predecessor and the successor in the case of succession referred to in clause (xiii) and clause (xiv) of section 47 or section 170 or to the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company in the case of amalgamation, as the case may be, shall not exceed in any previous year the deduction calculated at the prescribed rates as if the succession had not taken place, and such deduction shall be apportioned between the predecessor and the successor, or the amalgamating company and the amalgamated company, as the case may be, in the ratio of the number of days for which the assets were used by them. 

 

Explanation 1 : Where the business or profession of the assessee is carried on in a building not owned by him but in respect of which the assessee holds a lease or other right of occupancy and any capital expenditure is incurred by the assessee for the purposes of the business or profession on the construction of any structure or doing of any work in or in relation to, and by way of renovation or extension of, or improvement to, the building, then, the provisions of this clause shall apply as if the said structure or work is a building owned by the assessee. 

 

Explanation 2 : For the purposes of this clause “written down value of the block of assets” shall have the same meaning as in clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 43;

Explanation 3 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expressions “assets” and “block of assets” shall mean – (a) Tangible assets, being buildings, machinery, plant or furniture;

 

(b) Intangible assets, being know-how, patents, copyrights, trade marks, licences, franchises or any other business or commercial rights of similar nature.

 

Explanation 4 : For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “know-how” means any industrial information or technique likely to assist in the manufacture or processing of goods or in the working of a mine, oil-well or other sources of mineral deposits (including searching for discovery or testing of deposits for the winning of access thereto);

 

(iii) In the case of any building, machinery, plant or furniture in respect of which depreciation is claimed under clause (i) and which is sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed in the previous year (other than the previous year in which it is first brought into use), the amount by which the moneys payable in respect of such building, machinery, plant or furniture, together with the amount of scrap value, if any, fall short of the written down value thereof : 

 

Provided that such deficiency is actually written off in the books of the assessee. 

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, – (1) “Moneys payable” in respect of any building, machinery, plant or furniture includes – (a) Any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof;

(b) Where the building, machinery, plant or furniture is sold, the price for which it is sold, so, however, that where the actual cost of a motor car is, in accordance with the proviso to clause (1) of section 43, taken to be twenty-five thousand rupees, the moneys payable in respect of such motor car shall be taken to be a sum which bears to the amount for which the motor car is sold or, as the case may be, the amount of any insurance, salvage or compensation moneys payable in respect thereof (including the amount of scrap value, if any) the same proportion as the amount of twenty-five thousand rupees bears to the actual cost of the motor car to the assessee as it would have been computed before applying the said proviso; 

 

(2) “Sold” includes a transfer by way of exchange or a compulsory acquisition under any law for the time being in force but does not include a transfer, in a scheme of amalgamation, of any asset by the amalgamating company to the amalgamated company where the amalgamated company is an Indian company. 

 

(2) Where in the assessment of the assessee full effect cannot be given to any allowance under clause (ii) of sub-section (1) in any previous year owing to there being no profits or gains chargeable for that previous year or owing to the profits or gains being less than the allowance, then, the allowance or the part of allowance to which effect has not been given (hereinafter referred to as unabsorbed depreciation allowance), as the case may be, – (i) Shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of any business or profession carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year; 

 

(ii) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly set off under clause (i), the amount not so set off shall be set off from the income under any other head, if any, assessable for that assessment year;

 

(iii) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly set off under clause (i) and clause (ii), the amount of allowance not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year and – (a) It shall be set off against the profits and gains, if any, of any business or profession carried on by him and assessable for that assessment year;

 

(b) If the unabsorbed depreciation allowance cannot be wholly so set off, the amount of unabsorbed depreciation allowance not so set off shall be carried forward to the following assessment year not being more than eight assessment years immediately succeeding the assessment year for which the aforesaid allowance was first computed :

 

Provided that the business or profession for which the allowance was originally computed continued to be carried on by him in the previous year relevant for that assessment year :

 

Provided further that the time limit of eight assessment years specified in sub-clause (b) shall not apply in the case of a company for the assessment year beginning with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the said company has become a sick industrial company under sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986) and ending with the assessment year relevant to the previous year in which the entire net worth of such company becomes equal to or exceeds the accumulated losses. 

 

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, “net worth” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (ga) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986).

 

 

Related Judgements

 

COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX v. J. K. INDUSTRIES LTD.

 

PARIKH ENGINEERING & BODY BUILDING CO. LTD. & ANR. v. UNION OF INDIA & OR section

 

COMMISSIONER OF INCOME TAX v. BHARAT RADIATORS (P) LTD

 

 

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Income Tax Act, 1961 

 

Indian Laws – Bare Acts

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